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Introduction%20to%20Anatomy

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Title: Introduction%20to%20Anatomy


1
Introduction to Anatomy
  • anatomy and medicine

2
Anatomical Terminology
  • Anatomical Position standing erect, facing
    forward, arms at the sides, palm and feet facing
    forward

3
Anatomical Terminology
  • Superior above another body part
  • Inferior below another body part
  • Anterior toward the front
  • Ventral front or belly side
  • Posterior toward the back
  • Dorsal backside
  • Medial near the middle
  • Lateral to one side of the middle
  • Bilateral paired structures
  • Ipsilateral on the same side

4
Anatomical Terminology
  • Contralateral on the opposite side
  • Proximal close to the point of attachment
  • Distal further from the point of attachment
  • Superficial near the surface
  • Peripheral outward or near the surface
  • Deep internal parts
  • Abdominal between the thorax and the pelvis
  • Acromial the point of the shoulder
  • Antebrachial the forearm
  • Antecubital in front of the elbow

5
Anatomical Terminology
  • Axillary the armpit
  • Brachial the arm
  • Buccal the cheek
  • Carpal the wrist
  • Celiac the abdomen
  • Cephalic the head
  • Cervical the neck
  • Costal the ribs
  • Coxal the hips
  • Crural the leg

6
Anatomical Terminology
  • Cubital the elbow
  • Digital fingers or toes
  • Femoral the thigh
  • Frontal the forehead
  • Genital reproductive organs
  • Gluteal the buttocks
  • Inguinal the groin
  • Lumbar the lower back
  • Mammary the breast
  • Mental the chin

7
Anatomical Terminology
  • Nasal the nose
  • Occipital the lower posterior part of the head
  • Oral the mouth
  • Orbital the eye socket
  • Palmar palm of the hand
  • Patellar front of the knee
  • Pectoral the chest
  • Pelvic the pelvis
  • Perineal between the anus and the external
    reproductive organs
  • Plantar the sole of the foot

8
Anatomical Terminology
  • Popliteal behind the knee
  • Sacral between the hip bones
  • Sternal front, middle of the thorax
  • Sural calf of the leg
  • Tarsal the ankle
  • Umbilical the naval
  • Vertebral the spinal column

9
Anatomical Terminology
  • Cardiac the heart
  • Renal or nephric the kidneys
  • Optical vision
  • Radio x-rays
  • Dermal the skin
  • Hepatic the liver
  • Neural nerves
  • Histal tissues
  • Gastric the stomach
  • Enteral the intestines
  • Hyper above
  • Hypo below

10
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11
Medical and Applied Sciences
  • Gastroenterology
  • Immunology
  • Neonatologist
  • Otolaryngologist
  • Gynecologist
  • Hematologist
  • Psychologist
  • Epidemiologist
  • Cardiology
  • Dermatology
  • Gerontology
  • Radiologist
  • Neurology
  • General Practice
  • Surgeon
  • Audiologist
  • Optometrist
  • Pathology
  • Cytology
  • Endocrinology
  • Anesthesiologist
  • Podiatrist
  • Pediatrician
  • Psychiatrist
  • Nephrology
  • Hepatologist
  • Phlebologist
  • Toxicology
  • Urologist
  • Oncologist
  • Geriatrics
  • Orthopedics
  • Histology
  • Ophthalmologist
  • Obstetrics
  • Pharmacology

12
Introduction
  • Anatomy the study of the structure of body parts
  • Physiology the study of the function of the body
    parts

13
Characteristics of Living Things
  1. Movement self initiated change in position,
    motion of internal parts
  2. Responsiveness ability to sense changes and
    react to them
  3. Growth increase in body size
  4. Reproduction producing offspring and passing
    genetic material to them
  5. Respiration obtaining oxygen, using it to
    release energy from food and getting rid of
    carbon dioxide

14
Characteristics of Living Things
  • 6. Digestion chemically breaking down food and
    getting rid of wastes
  • 7. Absorption passage of digested nutrients
    through membranes and into bodily fluids
  • 8. Circulation movement of substances throughout
    the body
  • 9. Assimilation changing absorbed substances
    into different chemicals
  • 10. Excretion removal of waste products

15
Characteristics of Living Things
  • Metabolism all the chemical changes that occur
    in the body to maintain life
  • Needs
  • Water transports substances and maintains
    temperature
  • Food provides the body with nutrients
  • Oxygen releases energy from food and drives
    metabolism
  • Heat a form of energy that is a product of
    metabolism
  • Pressure important in breathing and circulation

16
Characteristics of Living Things
  • Homeostasis the ability of the body to maintain
    a stable, balanced environment
  • Homeostatic controls self-regulating control
    systems in the body that are initiated when
    conditions deviate from normal
  • Receptors detect environmental changes and relay
    the information to the brain
  • Effectors muscles or glands that respond to
    bodily changes
  • Set point what the norm should be

17
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18
Feedback Loops
  • Positive Feedback Loops increases the action of
    the effectors
  • Example blood begins to clot and more clotting
    factors are produced
  • Negative Feedback Loops decreases the action of
    the effectors
  • Example the body gets cold and starts to shiver
    to heat the body back up so that the effectors
    arent telling the brain it is cold anymore

19
What is the internal process that happens when we
get cold?
20
What is the internal process that happens when we
get too hot?
21
What is the internal process that happens when we
get burnt or cut?
22
What is the internal process that happens when we
catch a virus?
23
Levels of organization
24
Body Organization
  • Axial portion head, neck and trunk
  • Appendicular portion arms and legs
  • Several body cavities and layers of membranes
    lining the cavities
  • A variety of organs and organ systems within the
    body cavities
  • Viscera relating to any or all internal organs

25
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26
Body Organization
  1. Transverse plane divides the body into superior
    and inferior parts
  2. Sagittal plane divides the body into right and
    left halves
  3. Frontal plane divides the body into anterior and
    posterior halves

27
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28
Body Cavities
  • Ventral body cavities
  • Thoracic cavity chest contains heart, lungs,
    trachea and esophagus
  • Abdominal cavity contains digestive organs
  • Pelvic cavity contains bladder and reproductive
    organs
  • Diaphragm separates the thoracic and pelvic
    cavities

29
Body Cavities
  • Dorsal Body Cavities
  • Cranial cavity contains the brain
  • Vertebral cavity contains the spinal cord

30
Membranes
  • Serous membranes two layers of membranes that
    cover organs
  • Parietal membrane forms the outer lining
  • Visceral membrane inner layer covering the
    surface of an organ
  • Serous fluid fluid between the membrane layers
    that provides lubrication

31
Membranes
  • Pleural membrane surrounds the lungs
  • Pericardium surrounds the heart
  • Peritoneum surrounds the organs within the
    abdominopelvic cavity

32
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33
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34
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35
Body Systems
  • Integumentary system skin, hair, nails, sweat
    glands and sebaceous glands
  • Protects
  • Regulates body temperature
  • Skeletal system Bones, ligaments, tendons and
    cartilage
  • supports and moves body parts
  • Produces blood cells and store inorganic salts
  • Muscular System muscles
  • move body parts and maintains posture
  • Produce heat

36
Body Systems
  • Nervous system brain, spinal cord, nerves and
    sense organs
  • Sends signals
  • Receptors and effectors
  • Endocrine system glands
  • secrete hormones
  • Alters metabolism
  • Cardiovascular system heart, blood and vessels.
  • Transports gases, nutrients, hormones and wastes
  • Transports biochemicals used in metabolism
  • Lymphatic System lymph fluid and vessels, spleen
  • Cleans the blood and defends against disease
  • Removes wastes

37
Body Systems
  • Digestive System Mouth, esophagus, stomach,
    intestines, gal bladder, pancreas, liver
  • break down food molecules, absorbs nutrients and
    eliminates waste products
  • Produces heat and provides nutrients
  • Respiratory System lungs, trachea, nasal cavity,
    bronchi
  • Gas exchange between the blood and the air
  • Maintains pH balance

38
Body Systems
  • Urinary System kidneys, ureters, bladder,
    urethra
  • Remove wastes from blood
  • Maintains water and salt balance
  • Reproductive system female or male reproductive
    organs (internal and external)
  • Transports sperm or egg and nourishes offspring
  • Makes hormones
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