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Title: Night Author: kathyasummers Last modified by: Created Date: 9/2/2009 10:20:19 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Night

  • Review

Page 3
  • Moishe
  • Beadle caretaker of the synagogue
  • No surname no true identity, recognition as a
  • jack of all trades (master of none) he knew a
    lot about many things, but no true religious
    education, uneducated- Eliezer goes to him for
  • Why was he the exception to the rule regarding
    how the poor were treated by the majority of the
    Jewish community?

  • Anaphora
  • Repetition of a word, or phrase, for emphasis
  • List of what he did that gave him acceptance from
    the adult community.
  • He stayed out of peoples way. His presence
    bothered no one. He had mastered the art of
    rendering himself insignificant, invisible.
  • This is what the Nazis are counting on to
    destroy the Jewish people.
  • IRONY Later when Moishe returns.

Eliezers view of Moishe
  • Softness in his tone. Childlike images
  • Simile awkward as a clown circus
  • his waiflike shyness child who needs
    protection orphan sweet no conflict.
  • wide, dreamy eyes, gazing off into the distance
    childlike imagination (this will later
    influence Eliezer as to the credibility of
    Moishes claims)
  • He spoke little. He sang, or rather he chanted
  • Religious themes Shekhinah in Exile Kabbalah
  • Eleiser 13 years old deeply observant bar
    mitzvah age. Influential age
  • Following all the rules and laws of his faith.

Page 4
  • Influence to begin independent thoughts
    mysticism of the Kabbalah.
  • His father wants him to be more educated.
    Protective father.
  • You are too young for that. Maimonides tells us
    that one must be thirty before venturing into the
    world of mysticism, a world fraught with peril.
    First you must study the basic subjects, those
    you are able to comprehend. There are no
    Kabbalists in Sighet. He wanted to drive the
    idea of studying Kabbalah from my mind.
  • A little bit of knowledge is a dangerous thing.
    Important to know the basics before developing an
    intellectual understanding of religious practices
    and beliefs that may be flawed. Prevents
    confusion or at least is a step in the right
  • (grandmother) (father bird)
  • Father well respected by the community however,
    no father/son discussion when questioned. Eliezer
    then goes on his own quest of his faith through
    Moishe. Parents often make this mistake. I am
    your father/mother, trust what I say without
    question. This oftentimes causes rebellion.
  • Maimonides Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon first to
    write a code of Jewish law all must follow.
    Mishneh Torah

Page 4 5
  • Begins to ask questions. Why? Why? Why?
  • It is always good to ask questions. From that, we
    attain knowledge critical thinking skills
    ability to differentiate between what is truth
    and fallacy.
  • Is challenged by Moishe. Why? Why? Why?
  • Why do you cry when you pray? Challenges his
    faith. Does he do it out of rote? mechanical
    repetition, without real understanding of its
    meaning or significance.
  • Repetition of Why did I pray? Why did I live?
    Why did I breathe?
  • Eliezer accepts his ignorance. Hard thing to do
    for anyone. We dont like to admit that we are
    wrong. Then, we must admit that we are NOT
  • Moishe knows why he prays I pray to the God
    within me for the strength to ask Him the real

Quick Write 2
  • Moishe challenges Eleisers understanding of his
    faith through the quote
  • There are a thousand and one gates allowing
    entry into the orchard of mystical truth. Every
    human being has his own gate. He must not err
    and wish to enter the orchard through a gate
    other than his own. That would present a danger
    not only for the one entering but also for those
    who are already inside.
  • Analyze this quote. What does Moishe mean? What
    is the orchard of mystical truth? What are the
  • 250 words

Page 6
  • Moishe the Beadle was a foreigner.
  • Crammed into cattle cars.
  • Hungarian police
  • Influence of Germany over Hungary so far
  • cried silently - try to be insignificant
    invisible, dont fight back.acceptaccept.
  • Not happening to us..just the foreignersvalue?
  • What do you expect? Thats war.. too accepting
  • USA Japanese
  • Long Beach
  • For their safety
  • Paranoia

Hungarys Part
  • While anti-Jewish legislation was a common
    phenomenon in Hungary, the Holocaust itself did
    not reach Hungary until 1944.
  • In March of 1944, however, the German army
    occupied Hungary, installing a puppet government
    (a regime that depends not on the support of its
    citizenry but on the support of a foreign
    government) under Nazi control.
  • Adolf Eichmann, the executioner of the Final
    Solution, came to Hungary to oversee personally
    the destruction of Hungarys Jews. The Nazis
    operated with remarkable speed in the spring of
    1944, the Hungarian Jewish community, the only
    remaining large Jewish community in continental
    Europe, was deported to concentration camps in
    Germany and Poland. Eventually, the Nazis
    murdered 560,000 Hungarian Jews, the overwhelming
    majority of the prewar Jewish population in

Page 6
  • Time gives way to forgetting what happened.
  • Rumors Galicia, working, content..yes. Went to
  • Weather is pleasant back to normal
  • Moishe returns
  • Tells them the truth
  • forced to dig huge trenches..took place in
  • Character of the German soldiers
  • Jews animals, cattle, dogs, target practice

Page 7-8
  • Moishe
  • Joy in his eyes gone
  • No longer sang
  • No longer quiet
  • Jews, listen to me! Thats all I ask of you.
  • They think Im mad, .tears, like drops of wax
  • Simile candle melting moving from the light
    into the darkness of Hell to come
  • Christ-figure Anaphora I was
    saved.IIIonly no one is listening to me
    Light of the World warning of the evils of
    Satan. Do we listen? They refuse to see the light
    of truth. They ostracize him reject him totally
    as a member of their community.
  • Becomes silent.
  • Beaten
  • Eyes cast down avoiding peoples gaze

Page 8- 1944
  • False hope Germany would be defeated only a
    matter of time.
  • Anaphora The trees were in bloom. It was a year
    like so many others, with its spring, its
    engagements, its weddings, and its births. A
    sense of normalcy. Trying to convince themselves
    that all is ok.
  • The Red Army.Hitler will not be able to harm
    us. They refuse to see the truth. What about
    all the millions who have already died?
  • so many millions of the middle of the
    20th century? Not possible.difficult to accept
    the possibility of something so we then
    doubt Satans existence?

Page 9
  • Fascist party takes over Hungary
  • They did not understand what that meant.
  • Begin to hear stories. Worriedfor a moment. the
    Jews of Budapest live in an atmosphere of fear
    and terror. Anti-Semitic acts take place every
  • Simile news spread like wildfire
  • Flames fast and furious but burns out
  • No worry..wont come to ustoo faragain with
    rationalizationsnot ustherefore, no concern..

Page 9
  • Jewish people refuse to see the signs
  • German soldiers enter their town.
  • Officers stayed in Jewish homes.
  • Attitude distant but politewolf in sheeps
    clothing.Satan hides wellkeep those
    rose-colored glasses on as long as possiblethen,
    it is too late
  • death helmets bringing death to all Jews

Deaths-head emblem on German helmet- SS guards
Page 10
  • Germans are waiting for the right moment. Keep
    the Jewish people calm and unsuspecting. Three
    days after he moved in, he brought Mrs. Kahn a
    box of chocolates..There they are, your Germans.
    What do you say now? Where is their famous
    cruelty? Refuse to see the reality of what is
    going to happen.
  • The Germans were already in our townthe
    Fasciststhe verdict - (DEATH)the Jews were
    still smiling.
  • Very naive

  • Passover 8-day celebration
  • The Jews celebrated their Passover Feast in
    remembrance of God's deliverance from death
    during the time of Moses.
  •  Sighet -
  • Weather perfect however, synagogues closed.
    Acceptance? Dont want to cause conflictdont
    complain. Maybe they will go away.
  • Celebrate during this time but they are
    pretending. Deep down they are concerned, but
    they dont want to admit it. Want the
    celebrations to be over so they have no reason to

  • Moses was instructed to lead God's people out of
    Egypt and save them from the evil and ungodly
    Pharaoh. Because of Pharaoh's disbelief in the
    power of the One True God, Yahweh (God) sent a
    series of ten plagues upon the Egyptians the
    Nile turned to blood and at various times the
    land was filled with frogs, gnats, flies, hail,
    locusts, and darkness. In one awesome act of
    God's ultimate authority, He sent one final
    devastating plague every firstborn of every
    household would be annihilated.
  • God would shield the Israelites from this
    judgment if they would follow the instructions He
    gave to Moses and Aaron. The specific
    instructions are outlined in Exodus 121-11. Each
    family was to take a lamb and slaughter it at the
    same time at twilight after a certain number of
    days. Then they were to paint the sides and top
    of their doorways with some of this blood. Once
    this was done and all the meat of the lamb was
    eaten in accordance with God's instructions, God
    would spare the Israelites from death.

10 still
  • 7th day the curtain finally rose
  • The play is about to beginHORROR is behind the
  • Arrested the leaders of the Jewish community
  • Gold and all valuables taken forbidden help
    from the Hungarian police.
  • Metaphor The race toward death had begun
  • Nazis want this done ASAP!
  • Moishe confronts them

Page 11
  • Mom tries to keep things together job as mom.
    Suffer in silence. Nurturer worry about her
  • Reaction no big deal its just a patch its
    not lethal. IRONY they have been marked for
  • Ghetto
  • Nazis are slowly killing the Jewish peoples
    being. 1st step has been easy to accept the
    painless things being done to them. Baby steps.

  • Ghetto enclosed within barbed wire. Cattle.
  • Comfort zone. Away from the Germans. Safenot
    reallybut lets pretend in fact, we felt this
    was not a bad thing.
  • Anaphora We would no longer have to look at
    all those hostile faces, endue those hate-filled
    statesNo more fear.No more anguishWe would
    live among Jews, among brothers.
    NO..NO..NOthis cannot be our reality.
  • Euphemism Nice way of saying something
    uncomfortable, bad, etc Of course, there still
    were unpleasant moments. JEWS BEING TAKEN
  • Personification The ghetto was ruled

Step 2
  • Page 13
  • German Officers different mood mother feels
    the change
  • News Transports The ghetto was to be
    liquidated entirely. Irony The Final Solution
    Liquidate the Jewish people
  • Now they are worried and want to know everything.
    Secret on threat of death.
  • Page 15
  • Irony Our backyard looked like a
    marketplace.All this under a magnificent blue
    sky. Irony total chaos blue(peace and

Page 16
  • Exhaustion like molten lead total melt down
    brains slowly moving to inevitability.
  • Pain of waiting there was joy, yes, joy.
    Ironythey think that this was hell...they have
    no idea of the hell they are entering.
  • Imagery juxtaposition of Blazing sunny day vs
    dead, empty houses (personification) darkness
    within the hearts of the people- fear-despair

  • There they went, defeated, their bundlesThey
    passed me by, like beaten dogs.
  • Juxtaposition of good vs. evil
  • A summer sun vs. an open tomb
  • Life vs death
  • Personification
  • gaping doors and windows looked out into the
  • Simile surreal image like a small summer
    cloud, like a dream in the first hours of dawn.
  • The verdict had been delivered.death..

Page 19
  • My mind was empty.
  • I felt little sadness.
  • numb
  • Father emotion now
  • cries
  • Mother- strong, no emotion (MASK)
  • Hungarian police
  • First oppressors
  • Hatred remains to this day
  • Non-Jews
  • Ignore the reality- hide their guilt for doing
  • Refuse to fight for their neighbors condone ?

Page 20 - 21
  • Move to small ghetto
  • Still have faith
  • Oh god, Master of the Universe, in your infinite
    compassion, have mercy on us..
  • Still have hope
  • ..we were beginning to get used to the
    situationmiserable little lives until the end of
    the war.
  • Verbal irony
  • a big farcejust want to steal our
    valuableseasier to do when the owners are on
  • Free will taken away
  • we were all people condemned to the same
    fate-still unknown.

Page 22
  • Change of control irony worse
  • It had been agreed that the Jewish Council would
    handle everything by itself.
  • Jews have been conditioned to go along with the
    program. Comfort zone to have friends organize
    the march toward death.
  • Non-Jews
  • Again no one stands up for humanity
  • ..behind the shutters, our friends of yesterday
    were probably waiting for the moment when they
    could loot our homes.
  • Plan has been successful
  • cattle cars were waitingcars were sealedone charge...someone escapesperson
  • Two Gestapo officersall smiles all things
    considered, it had gone very smoothly.

One-page, typed reflection
  • Does God exist? If not, why? If yes, and you
    believe that He is the Creator of all things, did
    He create evil? If so, why?
  • Or did He create good but allowed evil to
    exist? How? Why?
  • Give at least three examples from your personal

Quick Write 5
  • We should stop talking so much about the
    Holocaust. Whats past is past.
  • 250 words
  • Agree or disagree
  • At least 3 examples from your historical
    knowledge/personal experiences

Page 23
  • Juxtaposition of beauty vs evil
  • The lucky ones could watch the blooming
    countryside flit by.
  • Loss of sense of modesty, humanity
  • Freed of normal constraints.let go of their
    inhibitionscaressed one another.
  • Human contactlovenecessary for survival of
  • Metaphor
  • Our eyes opened. Too late.
  • Reality of their delusions of safety. No escape
    from Hell.

Page 24
  • Inhumanity to humanity
  • shot like dogs.
  • The world had become a hermetically sealed
    cattle car.
  • Air-tight
  • Seal off the contamination of the Jews
  • Smothering
  • No one from the outside can help

Page 25 - 28
  • Mrs. Schachter
  • Irony of sanity vs insanity
  • Insane sees the truth prophetess
  • Sane refuse to see the truth
  • Fire! I see a fire! I see a fire! pity
  • Simile she looked like a withered tree in a
    field of wheat.
  • Fear we felt the abyss opening beneath us.
    (abyss- immeasurable chasm/void total darkness)
  • Like Moishe, Jews, listen to me!... warning
  • Rationalization She is hallucinatingthirstyfla
    mes devouring her (personification)
  • Cruelty breeds cruelty
  • bound and gagged her
  • received several blows to the head that could
    have been lethal.
  • Approval of the rest to beat her
  • Keep her quiet! Make that madwoman shut up.
    Shes not the only one here
  • Struck again
  • Jews, look! Look at the fire! Look at the
    flames! And as the train stopped this time we
    saw flames rising from a tall chimney into a
    black sky.

Quick Writes 6 7
  • For each quote, write a 250 word response as to
    your agreement or disagreement with the
    statement. Include at least 3 examples from your
    historical knowledge and/or personal experience.
  • 6 You can get used to anything.
  • 7 You should usually follow orders.

Fair and Balanced
  • It is important to understand that the majority
    of Germans were not Nazis.
  • Most of the concentration camps were not in
    Germany this gave the Nazi government the
    ability to convince the German people that the
    camps that they did have were only work camps or
    training camps. The idea of the reality of what
    was happening is something so heinous, that the
    normal person could not comprehend the truth of
    what was happening to the Jewish people.
  • The camps in Germany were work camps. Why would
    anyone think differently?
  • March 22, 1933 - Nazis open Dachau concentration
    camp near Munich, to be followed by Buchenwald
    near Weimar in central Germany, Sachsenhausen
    near Berlin in northern Germany, and Ravensbrück
    for women. These were the work camps.
  • This era was not a time of television, internet,
    cable, 24-hour news. The people only had radio
    and newspaper. These two media have the ability
    to propagandize without question.
  • The most of the free world was ignorant as well.
  • Ex. We do not know what horrors may be happening
    50 miles away from our own homes, except for
    internet, 24-hour cable, the ability to move
    about freely and quickly.

German Jews
  • At Wuerzburg, Germany, Jewish deportees carrying
    bundles and suitcases march through town in
    columns behind Nazi officials riding in an open
  • The Jews of Wuerzburg were taken by police
    officials into the Platzscher Garten hotel. In
    one room of the hotel, their luggage was
    inspected by Gestapo officials and all valuables
    were confiscated. The luggage was then taken to a
    collecting area, from where it would supposedly
    be taken to the deportation train. However, the
    deportees never saw their luggage again.
  • In a second room, the deportees surrendered all
    their personal papers showing ownership of
    securities and property. They were left only with
    their identification cards, watches and wedding
    rings. In the next room the deportees underwent
    body searches for concealed valuables. Even gold
    fillings were removed from their teeth. Next,
    their identification cards were stamped
    "evakuiert" deported.
  • They were then surrendered to an SS detachment
    until ready to leave for the railway station. To
    facilitate the march through the city and the
    boarding of the trains, the deportees were
    organized into groups led by Jewish ordners. The
    transport traveled to Nuremberg, where it was
    attached to a larger Judentransport departing for
    ghettos and concentration camps in the East,
    outside of Germany

  • Leaders and diplomats
  • Per Anger, Swedish diplomat in Budapest who
    originated the idea of issuing provisional
    passports to Hungarian Jews to protect them from
    arrest and deportation. Anger collaborated with
    Raoul Wallenberg to save the lives of thousands
    of Jews.
  • Count Folke Bernadotte of Wisborg - Swedish
    diplomat, who negotiated the release of 27,000
    people (a significant number of which were Jews)
    to hospitals in Sweden.
  • Jacob (Jack) Benardout - British diplomat to
    Dominican Republic before and during World War
    Two. Issued numerous Dominican Republic visas to
    Jews in Germany. Only 16 Jewish families arrived
    in the Dominican Republic (the other Jews
    dispersed into countries along the way e.g.
    Britain, America) and so created the Jewish
    community of The Dominican Republic

  • José Castellanos Contreras - a Salvadoran army
    colonel and diplomat who, while working as El
    Salvador's Consul General for Geneva from
    1942-45, and in conjunction with George Mantello,
    helped save at least 13,000 Central European Jews
    from Nazi persecution by providing them with
    false papers of Salvadoran nationality.
  • Georg Ferdinand Duckwitz, German diplomatic
    attaché in Denmark. Alerted Danish politician
    Hans Hedtoft about the imminent German plans
    deport to Denmark's Jewish community, thus
    enabling the following rescue of the Danish Jews

  • Frank Foley - British MI6 agent undercover as a
    passport officer in Berlin, saved around 10,000
    people by issuing forged passports to Britain and
    the British Mandate of Palestine.
  • Varian Fry - American journalist who saved 2,000
    - 4,000 Jews, including many prominent artists
    and intellectuals.
  • Albert Göring - German businessman (and younger
    brother of leading Nazi Hermann Göring) who
    helped Jews and dissidents survive in Germany
  • Paul Grüninger - Swiss commander of police who
    provided falsely dated papers to over 3,000
    refugees so they could escape Austria following
    the Anschluss.
  • Wilm Hosenfeld - German officer who helped
    pianist Wladyslaw Szpilman, a Polish Jew, among
    many others.
  • Prince Constantin Karadja - Romanian diplomat,
    who saved over 51,000 Jews from deportation and
    extermination, as credited by Yad Vashem in 2005

  • Jan Karski- Polish emissary of Armia Krajowa to
    Western Allies and eye-witness of the Holocaust.
  • Necdet Kent - Turkish Consul General at
    Marseille, who granted Turkish citizenship to
    hundreds of Jews. At one point he entered an
    Auschwitz-bound train at enormous personal risk
    to save 70 Jews, to whom he had granted Turkish
    citizenship, from deportation.
  • Zofia Kossak-Szczucka - Polish founder of Zegota.
  • Carl Lutz - Swiss consul in Budapest, managed to
    provide safe-conducts for emigration to Palestine
    to many thousands of Hungarian Jews.

  • Luis Martins de Souza Dantas - Brazilian in
    charge of the Brazilian diplomatic mission in
    France. He granted Brazilian visas to several
    Jews and other minorities persecuted by the
    Nazis. He was proclaimed as Righteous among the
    Nations in 2003
  • George Mantello (b. George Mandl) - El Salvador's
    honorary consul for Hungary, Romania, and
    Czechoslovakia - provided fictive Salvadoran
    citizenship papers for thousands of Jews and
    spearheaded a publicity campaign that eventually
    ended the deportation of Jews from Hungary to
  • Paul V. McNutt - United States High Commissioner
    of the Philippines, 1937-1939, who facilitated
    the entry of Jewish refugees into the Philippines
  • Helmuth James Graf von Moltke - adviser to the
    Third Reich on international law active in
    Kreisau Circle resistance group, sent Jews to
    safe haven countries.

  • Delia Murphy - wife of Dr. Thomas J. Kiernan,
    Irish minister in Rome 1941-1946, who worked with
    Hugh O'Flaherty and was part of the network that
    saved the lives POWs and Jews from the hands of
    the Gestapo
  • Giovanni Palatucci - Italian police official who
    saved several thousand.
  • Giorgio Perlasca - Italian. When Ángel Sanz Briz
    was ordered to leave Hungary, he falsely claimed
    to be his substitute and continued saving some
    thousands more Jews.
  • Dimitar Peshev - Deputy Speaker of the Bulgarian
  • Frits Philips - Dutch industrialist who saved 382
    Jews by insisting to the Nazis that they were
    indispensable employees of Philips.

  • Witold Pilecki - the only person who volunteered
    to be imprisoned in Auschwitz, organised a
    resistance inside the camp and as a member of
    Armia Krajowa sent the first reports on the camp
    atrocities to the Polish Government in Exile,
    from where they were passed to the rest of the
    Western Allies.
  • Karl Plagge - a Major in the Wehrmacht who issued
    work permits in order to save almost 1,000 Jews
    (see The Search for Major Plagge The Nazi Who
    Saved Jews, by Michael Good)
  • Eduardo Propper de Callejón - First secretary in
    the Spanish embassy in Paris who stamped and
    signed passports almost non-stop for four days in
    1940 to let Jewish refugees escape to Spain and

  • Traian Popovici - Romanian mayor of Cernauti
    (Chernivtsi) saved 20,000 Jews of Bukovina.
  • Manuel L. Quezon - President of the Commonwealth
    of the Philippines, 1935-1941, assisted in
    resettling Jewish refugees on the island of
  • Florencio Rivas - Consul General of Uruguay in
    Germany, who allegedly hid during Kristallnacht
    and later provided passports to one houndred and
    fifty Jews
  • Gilberto Bosques Saldívar - General Consul of
    Mexico in Marseilles, France. For two years he
    issued Mexican visas to around 40,000 Jews and
    political refugees, allowing them to escape to
    Mexico and other countries. He was imprisoned by
    the Nazis in 1943 and released to Mexico in 1944

  • Ángel Sanz Briz - Spanish consul in Hungary.
    Saved, together with Giorgio Perlasca, more than
    5,000 Jews in Budapest by issuing Spanish
    passports to them.
  • Abdol-Hossein Sardari - Head of Consular affairs
    at the Iranian Embassy in Paris. He saved many
    Iranian Jews and gave 500 blank Iranian passports
    to an acquaintance of his to be used by
    non-Iranian Jews in France.
  • Oskar Schindler - German businessman whose
    efforts to save his 1,200 Jewish workers were
    recounted in the book Schindler's Ark and the
    film Schindler's List.
  • Eduard Schulte - German industrialist, the first
    to inform Allies about the mass extermination of
  • Irena Sendler - Polish head of Zegota children's
    department saved 2,500 Jewish children.

  • Ho Feng Shan - Chinese Consul in Vienna, who
    freely issued visas to Jews.
  • Henryk Slawik - Polish diplomat, saved
    5,000-10,000 people in Budapest, Hungary.
  • Aristides de Sousa Mendes - Portuguese diplomat
    in Bordeaux, who signed about 30,000 visas to
    help Jews and persecuted minorities to escape the
    Nazis and The Holocaust.
  • Chiune Sugihara - Japanese consul to Lithuania,
    2,140 (mostly Polish) Jews and an unknown number
    of additional family members were saved by
    passports, many unauthorized, provided by him in
  • Selâhattin Ülkümen - Turkish diplomat who saved
    the lives of some 42 Jewish Turkish families,
    more than 200 persons, among a Jewish community
    of some 2000 after the Germans occupied the
    island of Rhodes in 1944.

  • Raoul Wallenberg - Swedish diplomat, saved up to
    100,000 Jews. Wallenberg saved the lives of tens
    of thousands of Jews condemned to certain death
    by the Nazis were thus saved. All inhabitants
    have been honored by Yad Vashem.
  • Moissac, France There was a Jewish boarding home
    and orphanage in this town. When the mayor was
    told that the Nazis were coming the older
    students would go camping for several days, the
    younger students were boarded with families in
    the area and told to treat as members of their
    immediate family and the oldest students hid in
    the house. When it became too dangerous for the
    students to stay there any longer they made sure
    that every student had a safe place to go to. If
    the students again had to move the counsellors
    from the boarding house arranged for a new place
    and even escorted them to the new housing.

  • Sir Nicholas Winton - British stockbroker who
    organized the Czech Kindertransport which sent
    669 children (most of them Jewish) to foster
    parents ln England and Sweden from Czechoslovakia
    and Austria after Kristallnach. Sir Nicholas has
    been nominated for the 2008 Nobel Peace Prize
  • Namik Kemal Yolga - Vice-Consul at the Turkish
    Embassy in Paris who saved numerous Turkish Jews
    from deportation.
  • Guelfo Zamboni - Consul General at Thessaloniki
    who gave false papers to save the lives of over
    300 Jews residing there.
  • Albert Battel - a German Wehrmacht officer.

  • Albert Bedane - of Jersey, provided shelter to a
    Jewish woman, as well as others sought by the
    German occupiers of the Channel Islands.
  • Victor Bodson helped Jews escape from Germany
    through an underground escape route in
  • Corrie ten Boom, rescued many Jews in the
    Netherlands by sheltering them at her home. - was
    sent to Ravensbrück
  • Stefania Podgorska Burzminski and Helena
    Podgorska at age 16 and 7 (Helena was her
    sister), they smuggled out of the ghettos and
    saved thirteen Jews from the liquidation of the

  • Sgt.-Major Charles Coward was an English POW who
    smuggled over 400 Jews out of Monowitz labour
  • Miep Gies, Jan Gies, Bep Voskuijl, Victor Kugler,
    and Johannes Kleiman hid Anne Frank and seven
    others in Amsterdam, Netherlands for two years.
  • Alexandre Glasberg, Ukrainian-French priest who
    helped hundreds of French Jews escape
  • Friedrich Kellner, justice inspector, who helped
    Julius and Lucie Abt, and their infant son, John
    Peter, escape from Laubach.
  • Stanislaw Kielar two girls from Reisenbach
  • Janis Lipke from Latvia, protected and hid around
    40 Jews from the Nazis in Riga.
  • Heralda Luxin, young woman who sheltered Jewish
    children in her cellar.
  • Józef and Stefania Macugowscy, hid six members of
    the Radza family, and several others, in Nowy
    Korczyn, Poland.
  • Shyqyri Myrto, Albanian rescuer of Jozef Jakoel
    and his sister Keti.
  • JUDr Rudolf Štursa, a lawyer, and Jan Martin
    Vochoc, an Old Catholic priest, in Prague
    baptized Jews on demand and issued over 1,500
    baptism certificates.

  • Villages helping Jews
  • Yaruga, Ukraine
  • Le Chambon-sur-Lignon, in the Haute-Loire
    département in France, which saved up to 5,000
  • Markowa, Poland, where 17 Jews survived the war.
    Many families hid their Jewish neighbours there
    and some paid the ultimate price.
  • Wiktoria and Józef Ulm, their 6 children and
    unborn baby were shot dead by the Germans for
    hiding the Szall and Goldman families.
  • Dorota and Antoni Szylar - hid seven members of
    Weltz family.
  • Julia and Józef Bar - hid five members of
    Reisenbach family.
  • Michal Bar - hid Jakub Lorbenfeld.
  • Jan and Weronika Przybylak - hid Jakub Einhorn.
  • Tršice, Czech Republic, many people from this
    village helped hide a Jewish family, six of them
    were given the honorific of Righteous among the
  • Nieuwlande, The Netherlands - during the war this
    small village contained 117 inhabitants. They
    unanimously decided in 1942 and 1943 that every
    household would give shelter to one Jewish
    household or individual during the war, thus
    making it impossible that anyone in the small
    village would betray their neighbours. Dozens of

  • Religious figures
  • Metropolitan Chrysostomos of Zante,who, when
    ordered by the Axis occupying forces to submit a
    list of all Jews on the island, submitted a
    document bearing just two names his own and the
    Mayor's. Consequently all 275 Zante Jews were
  • Archbishop Damaskinos - Archbishop of Athens
    during the German occupation. He formally
    protested the deportation of Jews and quietly
    ordered churches under his jurisdiction to issue
    fake Christian baptismal certificates to Jews
    fleeing the Nazis. Thousands of Greek Jews in and
    around Athens were thus able to claim that they
    were Christian and were thus saved.
  • Archbishop Johannes de Jong, later Cardinal, of
    Utrecht, Netherlands, who drew up together with
    Titus Brandsma O.Carm. ( Dachau, 1942) a letter
    in which he called for all Catholics to assist
    persecuted Jews, and in which he openly condemned
    the Nazi German "deportation of our Jewish fellow
    citizens" (From Herderlijk Schrijven, read from
    all pulpits on Sunday 26 January, 1942).

  • Alfred Delp S.J., a Jesuit priest who helped Jews
    escape to Switzerland while rector of St. Georg
    Church in suburban Munich also involved with the
    Kreisau Circle. Executed February 2, 1945 in
  • Rufino Niccacci, a Franciscan friar and priest
    who sheltered Jewish refugees in Assisi, Italy,
    from September 1943 through June 1944.
  • Maximilian Kolbe - Polish Conventual Franciscan
    friar. During the Second World War, in the
    friary, Kolbe provided shelter to people from
    Greater Poland, including 2,000 Jews. He was also
    active as a radio amateur, vilifying Nazi
    activities through his reports.
  • Bernhard Lichtenberg - German Catholic priest at
    Berlin's Cathedral. Sent to Dachau because he
    prayed for Jews at Evening Prayer.
  • Hugh O'Flaherty - an Irish Catholic priest who
    saved about 4,000 Allied soldiers and Jews known
    as the "Scarlet Pimpernel of the Vatican". Retold
    in the film The Scarlet and the Black.

  • Pope Pius XII - during the German occupation of
    Rome he organized that Italian Jews would be
    concealed in convents and monasteries. Up to
    1,000 Jews were even concealed at the Pope's
    Summer Residence Castel Gandolfo. His
    distribution of false baptismal certificates
    helped save the lives of over 860,000 Jews.
  • Sára Salkaházi - a Hungarian Roman Catholic
    Sister who sheltered an estimated 100 Jews in
  • Andrey Sheptytsky - Metropolitan Archbishop of
    the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, harbored
    hundreds of Jews in his residence and in Greek
    Catholic monasteries. He also issued the pastoral
    letter, "Thou Shalt Not Kill," to protest Nazi
  • The Sisters of Social Service, nuns who saved
    thousands of Hungarian Jews included Sister Sara
    Salkahazi, recognized by Yad Vashem as well as
  • Archbishop Stefan of Sofia - Bishop of Sofia and
    Exarch of Bulgaria.
  • André and Magda Trocmé - A French pastor and his
    wife who led the Le Chambon-sur-Lignon village
    movement that saved 3,000-5,000 Jews.
  • Omelyan Kovch - Ukrainian Greek Catholic priest
    who was deported to Treblinka camp for helping
    thousands of Jews. He was canonized by Pope John
    Paul II

  • Prominent individuals
  • Khaled Abdul-Wahab administrator of Mahdia,
    Tunisia, under German occupation first Arab
    nominated for "Righteous Among the Nations"
  • Maria Leenderts and Petrus Johannes Jacobus
    Kleiss, Dutch merchants in her "Selecta
    Schoenenwinkel" (located at 248 Dierenselaan in
    Den Haag) with the cooperation of personnel of
    the "Quick Steps" soccer club (located on the
    corner of the Hardewijkstraat and the Nijkerklaan
    in Den Haag) and the pastor of the "Sint Thersia
    Van Het Kind Jesus Kerk" (located across the
    street from the Selecta shoe store and on the
    corner of the Apeldoornselaan and the
    Dierenselaan) accommodated many Jewish families
    throughout the war.

  • Dorothea Neff, Austrian stage actress, who hid
    her Jewish friend Lilli Schiff.
  • Algoth Niska Finnish gentleman rogue and alcohol
    smuggler smuggled Jews via the Baltic.
  • Irene Gut Opdyke, Polish hid twelve Jews in a
    German Major's basement.
  • Jaap Penraat - Dutch architect who forged
    identity cards for Jews and helped many escape to
  • Tim Pickert rescued dozens of Jews from the
    ghettoes of Kraków, Poland to hide them in his
    windmills located on his estate 23 km northwest
    of the The Hague, Netherlands.
  • Nicolaus Rossini, helped many Jewish orphans -
    was executed in Kraków-Plaszów.
  • Irena Sendler, Polish social worker who saved
    about 2500 Jewish children from the Warsaw

  • Suzanne Spaak, wealthy socialite who saved Jewish
    children in France.
  • Marie Taquet-Martens and Major Emile Taquet hid
    some seventy-five Jewish children in a home for
    disabled children they were running in
    Jamoigne-sur-Semois, Belgium.
  • Ilse (Davidsohn Intrator) Stanley, herself a
    German Jew living in Germany until 1939, made
    many trips to German concentration camps and
    secured the release of 412 people. After
    Kristallnacht when she could no longer make those
    trips, she continued helping German Jews leave
    the country legally, until her own departure in
  • Gabrielle Weidner and Johan Hendrik Weidner,
    escape network rescued 800 Jews.
  • Bertha Marx and Eugen Marx assisted in saving
    Jews through the Resistance forces.

  • Death 1 (page 7) One day, Moshe the Beadle, who
    had been deported, comes back to Sighet to tell
    the story of the extermination of the Jews by the
    Gestapo. Although Moshe begs desperately to be
    heard, no one believes him. He tells Elie, "'I
    wanted to come back to Sighet to tell you the
    story of my death.'" Moshe the Beadle considers
    himself as already having gone through death. As
    someone who has experienced death and
    miraculously lives, he wants to save others from
    having to go through that same death.
  • Death 2 (pages 9- 17) Elie identifies the
    German soldiers by their steel helmets with the
    emblem, the death's head. It is the first
    impression Elie has of the German soldiers.
  • The Jews are not allowed to leave their houses
    for three days-on pain of death. The term, "on
    pain of death" is used several times in the
    narrative to emphasize the harsh reality of the
    German's threats.
  • As the Jews are forced to wear the yellow star,
    Elie's father replies, "'The yellow star? Oh
    well, what of it? You don't die of it....'" Elie
    responds, "Poor Father! Of what then did you
    die?" The yellow star symbolizes the mark of
    distinction that sends many Jews to their deaths.
    In retrospect, Wiesel feels that his father and
    the Jews of Sighet conceded to their deaths by
    submitting to every German decree. With each
    submission, they die a bit more.
  • As the ghettos are emptied by the deportation of
    the Jews, rooms that were once bustling with
    activity, lay open with the people's belongings
    still remaining. It is like an "open tomb" in
    that there is no longer any sign of life.

  • Death 3 (p. 33)The crematories serve as
    factories of death. The big, fiery furnace is
    where those who do not make the selection are
    sent. The threat of being sent to the crematory
    is likened to being sent to the grave.
  • As the prisoners witness the burning of babies,
    they begin to recite the Kaddish, the prayer for
    the dead. It is a prayer that the living offer up
    on behalf of the dead. "Someone began to recite
    the Kaddish, the prayer for the dead. I do not
    know if it has ever happened before, in the long
    history of the Jews, that people have ever
    recited the prayer for the dead for themselves."
    The threat of death is so imminent that the Jews
    recite the prayer for their own souls.
  • Death 4 (p. 38)
  • The SS officer who introduces them to Auschwitz
    is described as having the odor of the Angel of
    Death. He tells the Jews that if they do not
    work, they will be sent to the crematory. The
    idea of being sent to the furnace becomes a firm
  • Elie realizes, as he settles in during the first
    night of camp, that he has changed the child in
    him is dead. It is the death of his old
    identity-the death of his innocence.
  • On the electric wires at Auschwitz, there is a
    sign with a caption "Warning. Danger of death."
    Elie considers it a mockery because everywhere in
    the camp, there is constant danger of death.

  • Memory 1 Although the whole of Night is a series
    of memories, there are many cases where either
    "forgetting" or "remembering" plays a significant
    role in the narrative. In the first chapter,
    Moshe the Beadle and all the foreign Jews of
    Sighet are expelled by the Hungarian Police. The
    Jews of Sighet are troubled but soon after the
    deportation, the deportees are forgotten and town
    life returns to normal.
  • Moshe returns to Sighet and recounts the horror
    stories of the Gestapo's extermination of the
    Jews. He tries to recall from memory, the stories
    of the victims' deaths "He went from one Jewish
    house to another, telling the story of Malka, the
    young girl who had taken three days to die, and
    of Tobias, the tailor, who had begged to be
    killed before his sons....
  • The German army sets up two ghettos in Sighet.
    The Jews of the "little ghetto" are deported
    first and just three days later, even as they
    move into the previous occupants' homes, the Jews
    of the big ghetto forget about them.

  • Memory 2 During the train ride, the Jews try
    desperately to silence the maddening screams of
    Madame Schachter. They even go so far as to hit
    her. Just as the Jews are able to block Madame
    Schachter out of their minds, they see the flames
    of the furnace and smell the odor of burning
    flesh at Birkenau. There, they are reminded of
    Madame Schachter's visions. (P 28)
  • Memory 3 The first night of camp is forever
    etched into Elie's memory. Repeatedly, he uses
    the phrase "never shall I forget." Elie does not
    have to try to remember anything because even if
    he tries to forget, the memories are eternal,
  • Upon arrival of Auschwitz, the SS officer in
    charge gives the new prisoners an introduction to
    the camp. He says, "'Remember it forever. Engrave
    it into your minds. You are at Auschwitz.'" (p38)
  • As the prisoners talk about God and wonder about
    their fate, Elie finds that only occasionally
    does he think about the fates of his mother and
    younger sister. The rigors of concentration camp
    life have dulled his sense of memory.

  • Wiesel's experiences during the holocaust, one of
    the darkest periods in human history, are like a
    journey into a night of total blackness. During
    his stay in the various concentration camps,
    Wiesel witnesses and endures the worst kind of
    man's inhumanity to his fellow men, as prisoners
    are beaten, tortured, starved, and murdered.
    Darkness and evil reigned.
  • When Wiesel was awarded the Nobel Prize for
    Peace, he condemned the silence and apathy of
    those who did not cry out and condemn the
    criminal atrocities of Hitler and his dark
  • As a symbol, night does not merely represent
    physical darkness it also stands for the
    darkness of the soul. It was obvious that the
    Nazis were dark and evil but Wiesel also felt
    that his heart was darkened by the evil around
    him. In the book, he says about himself, "There
    remained only a shape that looked like man. A
    dark flame had entered into my soul and devoured
  • Throughout the holocaust, Wiesel was living
    through a long "night" of terror and torture,
    where he could see no light at the end of the
    tunnel, only perpetual darkness.

  • Night 1 Before the Germans arrive at Sighet,
    nighttime is for Elie a time of spiritual and
    physical renewal. It is a time of studying
    religious texts, of prayer, and of restful sleep.
    This comforting sense of night is forever lost as
    Elie experiences the horrible, dreadful nights of
    the concentration camps.
  • Night 2 Elie describes how in the ghetto, as his
    father was telling stories, "Night fell,"
    foreshadowing the news of their deportation. The
    notion of "night" falling on the Jews becomes a
    running theme throughout the book. There are
    several instances where the phrase precedes some
    dreadful event. (p 12)
  • Night 3 Darkness characterizes the cattle train
    ride to Birkenau-Auschwitz. In the darkness,
    Madame Schachter goes out of her mind and yells
    incessantly about the fire, flames, and furnace.
    When she points and screams about the fire and
    flames, the other Jews see only darkness.
    Darkness is also a character of night that allows
    the young to flirt and people to relieve
    themselves without being seen. (p 27-28)

  • Night 4 The overwhelming sense of Elie's
    experiences during the first day of camp is that
    it is like a nightmare. As Elie and the other
    prisoners walk past the chimneys at Birkenau,
    they stand motionless, unable to comprehend the
    sights "We stayed motionless, petrified. Surely
    it was all a nightmare? An unimaginable
    nightmare?" Elie thinks he's dreaming. After
    pinching his face, in disbelief he utters, "How
    could it be possible for them to burn people,
    children, and for the world to keep silent? No,
    none of this could be true. It was a
    nightmare...." (32-33)

  • That first night of camp is forever etched into
    Elie's mind. His entire narrative story seems
    like an account of one long, endless night "So
    much had happened within such a few hours that I
    had lost all sense of time. When had we left our
    houses? And the ghetto? And the train? Was it
    only a week? One night-one single night?" (p 37)

Never Page 35
  • Psalm 150 final prayer ecstatic celebration of
    God. Each line begins Hallelujah, or Praise
    God. Wiesel gives an inverse version, with the
    repetition of Never- negative vs. affirmative.
  • Psalm 150 praises God Never questions His
  • Faith and morality turned upside down.
  • Eliezer accuses God of being corrupt.
  • Eliezer claims that his faith is destroyed yet
    refers to God in the last line.
  • Eliezer is struggling with his faith and his God.
  • Never able to forget the horror, he is never able
    to reject completely his heritage and religion.

Psychological Moral Tragedy
  • Death of faith in god
  • Death of faith in humankind
  • God fails to act justly and save the Jews from
    the Nazis
  • Nazis drive the Jews to cruelty to each other
  • Morality is upside down

Shaving of Head/Tatooing Page 35 42
  • Jewish law contains strict regulations about
    cutting ones hair and facial hair. Razors are
    not permitted, and beards and earlocks are often
    considered sources of pride and commitment to
    tradition. Nazi used this as a means of
    humiliation and denigration of Jewish tradition.
  • Tatooing is a strict ban by Jewish law. Nazis
    did this to dehumanize, demoralize, and strip
    them of their religious traditions.

Angel of Death
  • A prominent character in Jewish folk tradition.
  • Fearsome angel who would stand at the bedside of
    the sick, and using his knife, take his/her life.
  • Change ones name during extreme illness in an
    attempt to fool the angel discard all water in
    the room after the death, because the angel
    supposedly washed his knife in the water.

1st Selection
  • Page 29
  • Men to the left! Women to the right!
  • Never sees his mother and sisters again
  • 18 and 40
  • Weak vs strong
  • Truth
  • Auschwitz/crematoria
  • Revolt
  • The wind of revolt died down. Metaphor
  • Simile like cattle in the slaughterhouse
  • Too little too late
  • Dr. Mengele
  • Dr. Death
  • Conductor of orchestra in this play of horror
  • Selection of weak and strong
  • Useful for a time, or not

Rejection of God Page 33
  • Reality of the horror and no one is crying out to
    the world.
  • World does not care.
  • God does not care.
  • Why should I sanctify His name? The Almighty,
    the eternal and terrible Master of the Universe,
    chose to be silent. What was there to thank Him

Death March
  • We continued our march.closer and closer to the
    pit. (33)
  • Simile We were walking slowly, as one follows a
    hearse, our own funeral procession.
  • Still faith, angry, but May His name be exalted
    and sanctified..

Never page 34
  • Never shall I forget that night, the first night
    in camp, that turned my life into one long night
    seven times sealed. Never shall I forget that
    smoke. Never shall I forget the small faces of
    the children whose bodies I saw transformed into
    smoke under a silent sky. Never shall I forget
    those flames that consumed my faith for
    ever. Never shall I forget the nocturnal silence
    that deprived me for all eternity of the desire
    to live. Never shall I forget those moments that
    murdered my God and my soul and turned my dreams
    to ashes. Never shall I forget those things, even
    were I condemned to live as long as God
    Himself. Never.

  • Page 36
  • Gasoline completely soaked in it
  • fuel fire
  • Exterminate bugs
  • Showers get used to this for a purpose later

  • Page 37
  • The student of Talmud, the child I was, had been
    consumed by the flames.
  • My soul had been invaded and devoured by a
    black flame. (evil of Hell)
  • We were withered trees in the heart of the
    desert. (metaphor) (nothing lives) Living dead
  • herded continual image of cattle

  • Page 39
  • Work or crematoriumthe choice is yours.
  • Gypsy chance to be cruel to someone
  • Father beaten son does nothing
  • Guilt
  • Forgiven by father

  • Page 41
  • It was spring. The sun was shining.
  • Warning of Death
  • The fragrances of spring were in the air
  • Work makes you free.
  • These were the showers, a compulsory routine.

Page 42-45
  • Spoiled child
  • Branding
  • Lied to protect relative from pain
  • Humanity does not get reward
  • God is testing us.
  • March to Buna

  • Lagerkapo - head of camp
  • Oberkapo - overseer
  • Pipel - young apprentice or assistant
  • Kaddish - in Judaism, an Aramaic prayer that
    glorifies God and asks for the speedy
    coming of His kingdom on Earth.
  • Crucible - a vessel of a very refractory
    material (as porcelain) used for melting a
    substance that requires a high degree of
  • Din disagreeable music tones
  • Dysentery bacterial disease from malnutrition
  • Dregs most undesirable part of wine left over

  • Rosh Hashanah - (Hebrew, beginning of the
    year), Jewish New Year. Usually celebrated in
  • Zionism - Movement to unite the Jewish people of
    the Diaspora (exile) and settle them in
  • Nyilas - Hungarian for Arrow Cross, a fascist
    anti- semitic party which assumed power in late
    1944 and assisted the SS in deportations of
  • Shavuot - Jewish holiday. It is celebrated in
    the late spring
  • Phylacteries - called tefillin in Hebrew, consist
    of two black leather boxes that are attached
    to leather ties the boxes contain passages
    from Scripture written on parchment
  • Kapo - director leader of the group
  • Blockalteste - Block leader
  • Appelplatz - the place for roll call
  • Lageralteste - a prisoner who was in charge of
    the other prisoners

  • Shtibl - a house changed into synagogue
  • Penury - severe poverty
  • Kabbalah - body of mystical teachings of
    rabbinical origin, often based on an obscure
    interpretation of the Hebrew Scriptures.
  • Maimonides - Jewish philosopher and physician,
    born in Córdoba, Spain
  • Zohar - Jewish mystical text commenting on
    Torah a 13th-century Jewish mystical text
    that is the primary text of Kabbalistic
  • Glaicia - region of central Europe in southeast
    Poland and western Ukraine
  • Gestapo - Secret State Police, common
    designation of the terrorist political police
    of the Nazi regime in Germany
  • Kolomay City in Glaicia

  • Shoes
  • Gold tooth trip to the dentist pretends to be
    ill dentist hanged
  • youyouyou choosing cattle at a marketplace
  • Juliek violinist beauty of music illegal
  • SURVIVAL p 52 a famished stomach loss of
  • Idek Kapo mad cruel p 54 his father
    simile angry at his father (upside down
    morality break down of humanity )
  • Franek Pole - greedy- Father is the way to the
  • Idek publicly whips Elie into unconsiousness

Page 59
  • Two cauldrons of soup!
  • Desire overcomes fear of death
  • Irony shepherd ss
  • Soup lambs wolves inmates
  • Irony inmate snakelike

Page 61
  • Gallows
  • Young boy from Warsaw
  • Stands in defiance
  • Lack of humanity
  • Im hungry
  • Appreciation for food
  • Page 63 different
  • Metaphor p. 64 three black ravens
  • Pipel hated not this one angelic
  • To hang a child was a problem (ironic)
  • Page 65 where is God?
  • Food tastes like corpses

Loss of Faith through the hanging of the Pipel
  • God has been murdered
  • A just God must not exist in a world where a
    young child is hanged.
  • Lowest point of Elies faith
  • Death of his innocence with death of the child
  • Loses his faith, morals, values
  • Fear lose connection with his father in order
    to survive (p.63)

Elie as the Accuser
  • P. 66 67
  • What are You, my God?...
  • Benediction
  • Anaphora cynical
  • the melody was stifled in his throat.
    difficulty keeping the faith
  • Accuser vs accused
  • Anaphora You.. God is the betrayer
  • Powerful stranger observer no longer believed

Yom Kippur
  • Fast?
  • Metaphor locked in hell
  • Open defiance of Gods laws
  • Falls into the abyss of despair

  • Rosh Hashanah
  • Pass before God for judgment
  • Irony
  • Nazis God
  • They decide who lives and who dies
  • RUN!!! Do not show weakness

Pavlovs Theory
  • Page 73
  • The bell.The bell.a universe without a bell.
  • Selection father gives him his knife and spoon.
  • Page 76-77 Akiba Drumer lost his faith, will
    to fight, to live no hopetotal despair death
    of the soul
  • Forgot to say Kaddish loss of faith betrayal
    of humankind

Theme of Faith
  • From the beginning, Elie Wiesel's work details
    the threshold of his adult awareness of Judaism,
    its history, and its significance to the devout.
  • His emotional response to stories of past
    persecution contributes to his faith, which he
    values as a belief system rich with tradition and
    unique in its philosophy.
  • A divisive issue between young Elie and Chlomo is
    the study of supernatural lore, a division of
    Judaic wisdom that lies outside the realm of
    Chlomo's common sense.
  • To Chlomo, the good Jew attends services, prays,
    rears a family according to biblical dictates,
    celebrates religious festivals, and reaches out
    to the needy, whatever their faith.

Theme of Faith
  • From age twelve onward, Elie deviates from his
    father's path by remaining in the