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Horticulture Terms

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Horticulture Terms Rainier HS Landscape Design 2012 Division A method of propagation requiring the physical cutting and dividing of plants. Ferns and herbaceous ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Horticulture Terms


1
Horticulture Terms
  • Rainier HS
  • Landscape Design
  • 2012

2
Horticulture
  • The ART of cultivating fruits, nuts, vegetables,
    or ornamental plants.
  • Horti garden
  • Culture garden culture

3
Floriculture
  • The cultivation of ornamental flowering plants.

4
Botany
  • The SCIENCE of plants to include anatomy,
    physiology and taxonomy.

5
Pomology
  • The science and practice of growing, harvesting
    and marketing tree fruits and nuts.

Olericulture
  • The science and practice of growing, harvesting
    and marketing vegetables.

6
Annual
  • A plant which grows, flowers, produces seeds, and
    dies in one year. Must be replanted each year.

Perennial
  • A plant that grows year after year without
    replanting. A plant whose roots lives year to
    year.

7
Taxonomy
  • The study of plant names and the identification
    of plants.

Scientific name
  • The Latin name of a plant giving its genus and
    species.

8
Medium(Plural Media)
  • Any material, which is used to start and grow,
    seeds and plants.

9
Seed coat
  • The outer covering of a seed.

Endosperm
  • The stored food supply for the young developing
    seedling, which is contained in the seed.
    (rocket fuel)

Embryo (embryonic plant)
  • The entire plant inside the seed before
    germination.

10
Hybrid
  • An offspring of two different varieties of one
    plant type, which possesses certain traits of
    each plant type.

11
Named varieties
  • Specific individual strains of one type of plant,
    which have been named to indicate their
    particular traits.

12
Cross Pollination
  • A process in which pollen (male sex cell) of one
    plant unites with the egg (female sex cell) of a
    different plant.

Self Pollination
  • Fertilization of a plant by its own pollen. Male
    and female flower parts on the same flower.

13
Hardening Off Process
  • Gradually subjecting plants to more difficult
    growing conditions like withholding water and
    decreasing temperature, this prepares plants for
    transplanting by reducing transplant shock.

14
Cotyledons vs. True Leaves
  • Cotyledons are the first set of leaves that
    emerge from a seed at germination.
  • All other leaves are true leaves.
  • Cotyledons seed leaves

15
Seed Germination
  • The miracle process when seeds begin to sprout
    and grow to begin a new plant
  • Germination occurs when a seed receives the
    correct amounts of light, temperature and water
    simultaneously.

16
Plant Propagation
  • The process of reproducing or increasing plants.
    Can be sexual or asexual.

17
Transpiration
  • Loss of water through the leaves or stems of
    plants. Sort of like sweating 90 of a plants
    water loss is here.
  • A normal daily process of plants. Higher water
    loss on sunny days.

18
Turgid
  • A plant whose tissues are swollen, filled with
    moisture. Not wilted.
  • Turgid plant happy plant

19
Node
  • The joint of a stem, the swollen place where
    leaves and buds are attached. Roots form here
    when cuttings are made.

Internode
  • The space between the nodes on a stem.

20
Callus
  • Mass of cells which forms around the wounded area
    of a plant to start the healing process. Similar
    to a scab. New roots will form in this callus
    tissue.

21
Softwood Cutting
  • A cutting made from a stem whose tissue is softer
    and not as mature as the older wood.

Hardwood Cutting
  • A cutting made from a current seasons stem
    tissue, which is mature or harder in texture.

22
Rooting Hormone
  • A plant chemical used to help new cuttings to
    form new roots faster.
  • Sort of like a steroid to enhance growth.

23
Tissue Culture
  • micro-propagation
  • The process of reproducing thousands of plants
    from a few cells taken from the terminal bud
    tissue of a plant.
  • test tube plants
  • Must have extremely sanitary laboratory
    conditions for tissue culture.

24
Root Division
  • The physical separation of roots to form new
    plants from one mother plant.

Terminal Tip Growth
  • Softer tissue from the tip of the plant where
    most of the new growth occurs.

25
Binomial Nomenclature
  • The international naming system that gives every
    plant 2 names, genus and the specie in Latin.
  • Scientific Name Botanic Name.

26
Linnaeus
  • The Swedish botanist that came up with the 2 name
    system for classifying plants .
  • 1750

27
Genus
  • The first name of a plant scientific name. A
    group of plants that are grouped together because
    of their similarities to one another. (genera
    plural).
  • A NOUN.

Specie
  • The second name in scientific name, more specific
    in nature.
  • An ADJECTIVE that describes the genus.

28
Example
  • Acer rubrum Red Maple
  • Acer is the noun or genus.
  • rubrum is the adjective or specie that describes
    the genus (rubrum red in latin)
  • Quercus alba White Oak
  • Zebrina pendula, Setcresea purpurea

29
Cultivars
  • Another name for a specific plant, same as
    variety.
  • Example There are several cultivars or
    varietiesof Red Maple Tree.
  • Red Sunset, October Glory

30
Common Name
  • The local English name of a plant, which may
    differ in various localities.
  • Common names are not precise enough for
    commercial use.

31
Taxonomist
  • A person who studies plant names and the
    identification of plants as a career or field of
    study.

32
International Code of Botanical Nomenclature
  • A set of rules that are international for naming
    plants.

33
Mulch
  • Any material used to cover the soil for weed
    control and moisture retention.
  • Pine straw, pine bark nuggets, cypress shavings

34
Osmocote
  • A slow release fertilizer. Allows the plant to
    feed gradually over a longer period of time.
    Saves you labor. 14-14-14

35
Herbaceous
  • Any plant that has soft tissue and does not form
    wood or bark. A non-woody plant. Houseplants,
    annuals some perennials.

Deciduous
  • A plant which loses its leaves each autumn. It
    goes dormant in the winter.

36
Evergreen
  • A plant which has leaves or needles throughout
    the whole year.

37
Petiole
  • The stalk structure which supports the blade of
    the leaf. It attaches the leaf blade to the stem.

38
Simple leaf
  • A solitary leaf attached to a stem by a petiole.

Compound Leaf
  • A group of leaflets which compose the entire
    compound leaf.

39
Monocot
  • Classification of those plants having only one
    cotyledon or seed leaf. Grasses, chives and corn
    are monocots.
  • Parallel veins.

Dicot
  • A classification of plants having two cotyledons
    or seed leaves.
  • Vascular or woody plants.

40
Leaf Margin
  • The outer edge of a leaf .
  • Serrate, entire, lobed, etc.

Root Cap
  • The actively growing cells at the tip of the
    plant root.

41
Stoma
  • Small pores or holes in the leaf, which allow the
    plant to breathe and give off moisture. They open
    and close with day and night.

42
Lenticels
  • Breathing pores in the bark of woody stems. They
    open and close with day and night.

43
Ventilation
  • Movement and exchange of air in a greenhouse.

Photoperiodism
  • The response of plants to different periods of
    light and darkness in terms of their flowering.

44
Short Day Plant
  • A plant that blooms in the short winter days.
  • Some plants can be tricked into blooming by
    giving them short days artificially.
    Chrysanthemums and Poinsettias

45
Breaks
  • New shoots that develop as a result of
    pinching.
  • Same results as pruning out the terminal bud of a
    plant.

46
Growth Regulators
  • Chemicals that retard plant growth. It slows
    down the plant growth so they dont get too tall
    and floppy.

47
Root Rot
  • Most common disease of Poinsettia. Caused by Bad
    drainage, Bad ventilation or too much water.

48
Fungicide
  • Any substance which destroys or prevents the
    growth of fungi.
  • A type of pesticide to control plant diseases.

49
J.R. Poinsett
  • The U.S. Ambassador to Mexico who introduced the
    Poinsettia to America for future production.
  • Named the plant after himself.

50
Plant Hardiness
  • The ability of a plant withstand to the minimum
    temperature of an area.

Plant Form
  • The outer shape of a tree and its branches. The
    outer silhouette.
  • Round, columnar, oval, weeping, etc.

51
Plant Texture
  • The size and thickness of the plants leaves and
    stems. Fine, Medium, Coarse.

Bare Root Plants
  • Plants sold with no soil on the roots.
  • A. Cheaper
  • B. Very perishable

52
Balled and Burlapped
  • Plants- (BB) Roots in burlap held together by
    twine. Dug up at a nursery and sold this way.

Container Stock
  • Planted in a basket or plastic or metal can. Can
    be planted at any time of the year.

53
Drip Line of a Tree
  • The imaginary line where water drops off from the
    farthest point of branches.

54
Narrow leaf Evergreen
  • Evergreen plants with needle-like or scaly
    foliage. Pines, Junipers.

Broad leaf Evergreen
  • Evergreen plants with broad leaf blade. BLE
    Hollies and broad leaf plants.

55
Fascicles
  • The sheathes or bundles that contain needle like
    leaves attached to the branch in conifers.

56
Heeling in
  • The process of temporarily covering the plant
    roots when a tree has to be out of the ground for
    transplanting. The purpose is to retain the
    moisture around the roots with an organic
    material such as straw, mulch or soil during
    transplanting.

57
Berm
  • A ridge of soil placed around a newly planted
    tree to retain water. a saucer or moat.
  • Traps the water to stay on top of the root zone.

58
Ground Cover Plant
  • Any low growing plant, under 12 tall, that
    completely covers the ground.
  • Used in place of grass for large areas (saves
    labor of mowing) usually planted in mass.
    Creeping junipers, ivy, monkey grass, etc.
    Usually very durable plants.

59
Foundation Plantings
  • Plants which are used next to buildings to help
    accent and tie the buildings into the landscape.
    Usually evergreen.

60
Specimen Plant
  • A plant that is used alone for accent or focal
    point to a landscape.

61
Soil Conditioner
  • Organic matter added to the native soil to
    improve texture, drainage, and overall quality of
    the soil. Peat moss, pine bark, rotted compost
    etc.

62
Hard Pan
  • The unprepared or untilled soil line. Dense and
    hard section of soil. The roots cannot penetrate
    hard pan.

63
Boundary Plants
  • Plants used to separate property or boundary
    lines. Planted in rows.
  • Can be low or high depending on purpose.

64
Bulb
  • A food storage organ.
  • A plant structure which consists of layers of
    fleshy scales overlapping each other, such as the
    onion or tulip.

65
Separation
  • Method of propagation that occurs naturally.
    Reproductive organs of a plant detach from the
    parent plant to become new plants.

66
Division
  • A method of propagation requiring the physical
    cutting and dividing of plants. Ferns and
    herbaceous perennials are often divided.

67
Corms
  • Swollen underground stem which grows upright, is
    a food storage organ and a means of reproduction.
  • Similar to a bulb.
  • Gladiolus plants.

68
Rhizomes
  • Underground stem which produces roots on the
    lower surface, and extends leaves and flowering
    shoots above the ground. Iris.

69
Tubers
  • A fleshy root which reproduces by growing roots
    from an eye or bud. Potatoes are tubers.

70
pH
  • The measuring scale of a soils acidity.
  • A pH of 1-6 is acid. pH 7 is neutral, and 8-14 is
    base. To raise the soil pH, add lime.
  • Most plants prefer a pH of 5.5 to 7 range.

71
Leaching
  • It is when the fertilizer nutrients are leached
    out (washed out) of soil over time from excessive
    water.
  • Caused from excessive rain or watering.
  • This is why you have to keep applying fertilizers
    to plants.

72
Major Elements
  • Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium are the Major
    elements all plants need.
  • N-P-K example 10-10-10
  • Required in large amounts. They must be added by
    applying NPK fertilizer. 10-10-10, or 14-14-14,
    etc.
  • Also called the Macronutrients

73
Minor Elements
  • Elements that plants need in minor amounts. They
    may or may not need to be added to the soil.
  • Calcium, boron, iron and others.
  • Micronutrients!

74
Landscape Architect
  • Professionals who integrate art and science, and
    know how plants and landscape factors will react
    to the environment around them.

75
Landscape Contractor
  • A company or person who deals primarily with the
    installation of landscapes. They install what the
    architect designs.

76
Landscape Maintenance Contractor
  • A firm that maintains the landscape under the
    guidelines of a contract. weekly/monthly.

77
Subcontracting
  • The hiring of a 2nd firm or contractor to
    complete specialized tasks such as irrigation,
    tree surgery, etc.

78
Site Analysis
  • Making an evaluation of the landscape site to
    determine how many of the clients needs can be
    met. It tells what is present on the site and
    what is desired.

79
Branch Collar
  • The swollen area of a tree where the branch
    attaches to the main trunk.

80
Warm Season Grass
  • Those grasses that grow best in the warm months
    (80-90 degrees) of spring, summer and early fall.
    They grow vigorously during this time and become
    brown and dormant in winter Bermudagrass, Zoysia
    grass, Centipede grass.

81
Cool Season Grass
  • Grasses that grow well in the cool months (60-75
    degrees) of the year. They may become dormant or
    injured during the hot months of summer Fescue
    and rye grass are cool season. Annual rye
    temporary.

82
Herbicides
  • A type of pesticide chemical intended to control
    weeds.
  • Pre-emergent applied before weeds emerge to kill
    seeds.
  • Post-emergent applied after weeds emerge.
  • Selective kills only certain species and safe on
    turf.
  • Non-selective kills any plant it comes in
    contact with.
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