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Do Now!! ?

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Do Now!! What is an atom? Why do we have a periodic table? What information can we find in a periodic table? Proteins in the Body Involved in nearly every function of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Do Now!! ?


1
Do Now!! ?
  • What is an atom?
  • Why do we have a periodic table?
  • What information can we find in a periodic table?

2
Chapter 6
  • Biochemistry

3
Objectives
  • To define an atom.
  • To determine the make-up of an atom.
  • To list different elements that can be found on
    Earth.
  • To explain what type of information can be
    gathered from the periodic table.

4
Atoms
  • Smallest particle of matter that still has
    chemical properties
  • Matter anything that takes up space and has mass
  • Contain 3 parts
  • Protons positively charged, contain mass of 1
  • Location
  • Neutrons no charge, contain mass of 1
  • Location
  • Electrons Outside nucleus, negatively charged,
    insignificant mass
  • Location

5
Atoms make up Elements
  • A pure substance that cant be broken down into
    other substances by physical or chemical means.
  • Made up of only 1 type of atom
  • Contain a unique name and symbol.

6
Periodic Table of Elements
  • Periods horizontal rows
  • Groups vertical columns
  • elements in the same group have similar chemical
    and physical properties.

Organized based on the of protons in the
nucleus of an atom.
7
Periodic Table Information
  • Atomic number- tells us the of protons (as well
    as electrons)
  • Symbol- unique for each element.
  • Atomic Mass- of protons neutrons

6
  • C

12.02
How would you determine the number of neutrons
in an atom??
8
So
  • What makes atoms different?
  • How is carbon different from oxygen?
  • Different numbers of protons!!

9
Think-Pair-Share
  • List the number of protons, neutrons, and
    electrons for the following
  • Mg
  • Ca
  • Fe
  • Cl

10
Do Now!! ? Complete the chart
11
Do Now!! ?
Complete the missing information and include the
number of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
12
Do Now!! ?
  • List the number of protons, neutrons and
    electrons for the following
  • H
  • P
  • K
  • Ni
  • Ar

13
Objectives
  • To practice drawing different atoms.
  • To review parts of the atom by completing a
    worksheet activity.

14
Drawing an atom
  • Things to remember!
  • Proton Electron
  • Protons and neutrons are in the nucleus and add
    up to the atomic mass.
  • Electrons are arranged in energy levels
  • 1st energy level holds 2 electrons
  • 2nd energy level holds 8
  • 3rd energy level holds 8

Valence electrons electrons on outermost shell
15
Lets Draw Oxygen!
  • How many protons, neutrons and electrons does an
    atom of oxygen have?
  • How many valence electrons are there?

16
Practice
  • Lets draw
  • 1. He
  • 2. Na
  • 3. S
  • 4. C
  • 5. Cl

17
Do Now!! ?
Please complete the table below!
Acid Base
s on pH scale
Release_____ in water
Litmus paper is _____ in its presence
Examples
What is a neutralization reaction? What are the
reactants? Products?
18
Do Now!! ?
  • Lets draw
  • 1. Ar
  • 2. Al
  • 3. Na
  • 4. Ne
  • 5. Mg

19
Objectives
  • To discuss isotopes and relate their research to
    the medical field
  • To determine the number of protons, neutrons and
    electrons of ions
  • To identify types of bonds

20
What is wrong with this picture?
Carbon -atomic symbol C -atomic
6 -atomic mass 12.02
21
Isotopes
  • Isotopes contain the same of protons and
    electrons as the element, but a different number
    of neutrons.
  • Ex Carbon-14
  • Contains 6 protons (still carbon)
  • Also contains 8 neutrons, instead of 6

22
Radioactive Isotopes
  • Changing the of neutrons changes the stability
    of the atom
  • causes decay in the nucleus or causes it to break
    apart.
  • Ex Carbon-14 is used in carbon-dating. We can
    tell how old something is by how much carbon is
    left.

23
Radioactive Isotopes
  • Ex Radioactive isotopes are used to help doctors
    diagnose disease and locate certain types of
    cancer.

24
What happens if there are different number of
______ than a normal atom?
  • Neutrons?
  • More protons than electrons?
  • More electrons than protons?

25
Happy Atoms
  • Atoms need to have the right number of electrons
    around them (happy)
  • Ions- charged atom or groups of atoms
  • Ions can lose or gain electrons
  • Lose form positive ions
  • Gain form negative ions

Na
Cl
26
How many electrons does each of the following
want to be happy?
  • Oxygen
  • Carbon
  • Hydrogen
  • Nitrogen

27
Lets Practice!
  • List the number of protons, neutrons and
    electrons in each ion
  • O-
  • Na
  • N3-
  • Cl-
  • F
  • Are any of these atoms happy?

28
Do Now!! ?
  • Think-Pair-Share
  • - If an ion is positively charged, does it gain
    or lose electrons?
  • - Negatively charged?
  • - How many electrons does O3- have?

29
Objectives
  • Identify protons, neutrons and electrons in ions.
  • Identify compounds.
  • Determine what information can be received from a
    chemical formula.

30
Do Now!! ?
  • Identify the element and then state if it is a
    normal atom, an isotope, or an ion.

31
Objectives
  • Practice identifying components of ions by
    completing a worksheet
  • Identify compounds.
  • Determine what information can be received from a
    chemical formula.
  • Compare and contrast ionic bonding vs. covalent
    bonding.
  • Explain what Vanderwalls interactions are.

32
Molecules and Compounds
  • Molecule Forms when two or more atoms form
    chemical bonds
  • Compound A pure substance formed when 2 or more
    different elements combine
  • Always formed using a specific ratio
  • Ex fuel in cars (hydrocarbons)
  • Chemically and physically different from the
    elements that make them up
  • Must be broken down CHEMICALLY, not physically

33
Chemical Formulas
  • The number before the formula states how many
    molecules
  • Ex. 4 H2O 4 water molecules
  • The subscript number states how many of that type
    of atom
  • Ex. H2O 2 hydrogen atoms, 1 oxygen atom

O
H
H
34
Lets try some examples
  • For the following examples list the total number
    of atoms for each element and how many of each
    molecule.
  • C6H12O6
  • 3CH4
  • 5CO2
  • 3O3
  • 4HCl

35
Do Now!! ?
  • For the following examples list the total number
    of atoms for each element and how many of each
    molecule.
  • 2H2SO4
  • 4HNO3
  • 5MgCl2
  • NaOH
  • 4C6H8O7

36
Objectives
  • Compare and contrast ionic bonding vs. covalent
    bonding.
  • Explain what Vanderwalls interactions are.
  • Explain what a chemical reaction is.
  • Identify reactants and products in a reaction.
  • Balance an equation.

37
How do compounds stay together?
  • Bonds!
  • 2 most common types
  • Covalent- atoms share electrons
  • Ionic- atoms gain or lose electrons to bond

38
Covalent Bonding
  • Carbon (C) form 4 bonds (another 4 e)
  • Hydrogen (H) form one bond (1 e)
  • Nitrogen (N) form 3 bonds (3 e)
  • Oxygen (O) form 2 bonds (2 e)
  • Ex H2O

39
Ionic Bond
  • Some atoms tend to donate or accept electrons
    more easily than other atoms.
  • Ex. Metals (D) and Non Metals (A)

40
Van Der Waals Interactions
  • When molecules come close together, the
    attractive forces between slightly positive and
    negative regions pull on the molecules and hold
    them together.
  • The strength of the attraction depends on the
    size of the molecule, its shape, and its ability
    to attract electrons.

41
Do Now!! ?
  • Please take out your ion worksheet!

42
Objectives
  • To define chemical reaction
  • To differentiate between endothermic and
    exothermic reactions
  • To illustrate types of reactions in a lab
    activity

43
6.2 Chemical Reactions
  • A chemical reaction -atoms or groups of atoms are
    reorganized into different substances.
  • Chemical Reactions
  • Production of heat or light
  • Formation of a gas, liquid, or solid

44
Parts of a Reaction
  • Reaction- Molecules breaking or coming together
  • Reactants- What goes in the reaction
  • Products- What comes out of the reaction
  • Ex Na Cl- ? NaCl

45
Energy in Reactions
  • The activation energy - minimum amount of energy
    needed for reactants to turn into products

46
Types of Reactions
  • Exothermic- releases heat energy
  • The energy of the product is LOWER than the
    energy of the reactants.

47
Types of Reactions (cont.)
  • Endothermic - absorbs heat energy
  • The energy of the products is HIGHER than the
    energy of the reactants.

48
Demo time!! ?
Endothermic or Exothermic??
49
Do Now!! ?
  • Glucose and oxygen react to form carbon dioxide
    and water.
  • Identify
  • Products
  • Reactants
  • Is this a balanced equation?

ATP (energy)
50
Objectives
  • To balance equations.
  • To identify types of reactions.
  • To explain how an enzyme works.
  • To determine the difference between a solute and
    a solvent.

51
Do Now!! ?
  • Determine whether or not the following are
    Exothermic or Endothermic reactions
  • 1. Combustion reactions of fuels
  • 2. melting ice cubes
  • 3. Nuclear Bomb
  • 4. a candle flame
  • 5. cooking an egg
  • 6. Photosynthesis

52
Objectives
  • To identify types of reactions.
  • To explain how an enzyme works.
  • To determine the difference between a solute and
    a solvent.
  • To list the properties of water.

53
What you should know about enzymes!!
Type of Enzyme Substrate Product
Lipase Protein Amino Acid
Protease Fats Fatty Acid
Carbohydrase Carbohydrates Glucose
Lactase Lactose Glucose
Amylase Carbohydrates Glucose
Pepsin Protein Amino Acid
  • Specialized proteins that act as catalysts
  • Aka they speed up reactions!
  • Usually end in ase
  • NOT consumed in the reaction
  • They are reused!!

54
What do they do?
  • Lower the activation energy needed!!
  • Activation energy barrier is like a wall between
    two parts of a pond.
  • If an enzyme lowers the wall, more frogs have
    enough energy to reach the other side.

55
How do they work?
  • A substrate fits in the active site of an enzyme
  • Specific to one kind of substrate
  • Lock and key
  • This forms an enzyme substrate complex.
  • Will then break or form bonds.

56
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57
Denaturing Enzymes
  • Enzymes have specific optimal conditions
  • Temperature
  • pH
  • If those conditions change, enzyme is permanently
    damaged
  • Denatured!
  • Cannot do its job

58
Do Now!! ?
  • What is the purpose of an enzyme?
  • What was the enzyme used in your liver lab?
  • What is a substrate?
  • What was the substrate in your liver lab??

59
Objectives
  • To identify types of reactions.
  • To explain how an enzyme works.
  • To determine the difference between a solute and
    a solvent.
  • To list the properties of water.

60
How do they work?
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vXTUm-75-PL4

61
6.3 Solutions
  • Solution Mixture of a solute dissolved in a
    solvent (ex iced tea!)
  • How do things dissolve?
  • Polar Covalent Bond Slight positive and negative
    charges
  • Ex. H2O (universal solvent!) and NaCl (salt)
  • Non-polar Do not dissolve in water
  • Ex. Lipids and Fats

62
Mixtures
  • Solute- substance that is dissolved
  • Solvent- substance that the solute dissolved in.
  • Ex. Hot chocolate (Water and Coco Powder)

63
Mixtures
  • Homogeneous
  • Heterogeneous

What is the difference?
64
Mixtures
  • Homogeneous- has a uniform composition throughout
    (a.k.a solutions).
  • Heterogeneous- components remain distinct.

65
Buffers
  • What happens to enzymes in a strong pH?
  • Buffers are mixtures that can react with acids or
    bases to keep the pH within a particular range
  • Ex Keep body fluids at a pH of 6.5-7.5
  • Ex Hemoglobin

66
6.4 Macromolecules of Life
  • Organic Chemistry The study of organic
    compounds
  • The element carbon is a component of almost all
    biological molecules (organic)
  • Inorganic no carbon

C arbon H ydrogen N itrogen O xygen P hosphorus S
ulfur
Six most abundant elements of life!!
67
Molecules
  • Macromolecules -
  • large molecules formed by joining smaller organic
    molecules together.
  • Are also called Polymers
  • made from repeating units of identical (or nearly
    identical) compounds (monomers)

Polymer
monomer
monomer
monomer
68
Do Now!! ?
  • Determine whether the following substances are
    heterogeneous or homogenous
  • Chicken noodle soup
  • Black coffee
  • Jello
  • Jello fruit salad
  • Cole Slaw
  • Whole milk
  • Chipotle Burritos

69
Do Now!! ?
  • Label the parts of the reaction below

70
Objectives
  • List the 4 macromolecules of life.
  • Identify the 3 different types of carbohydrates.
  • Explain the importance of carbs in the body.
  • Explain why low-carb diets can be harmful.

71
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72
Carbohydrates
  • Sources of energy
  • Ratio of carbon hydrogen oxygen of 121
  • (CH2O)n
  • n of CH2O in a chain
  • Ex glucose (C6H12O6)

Glucose



Where theres a corner theres a carbon!


73
Identify the Carbohydrates!
  • 1) C6H12O6
  • 2) CH3
  • 3) C4H2O2
  • 4) C24H48O24

74
Carbohydrates (cont.)
  • Monosaccharide- values of n ranging from three to
    seven (simple sugar)
  • ex glucose (n 6)
  • Disaccharide - Two monosaccharides joined
    together
  • ex lactose
  • Polysaccharide- many monosaccharides joined
    together
  • ex glycogen (energy storage in muscle)

75
Disaccharide (lactose)
Monosaccharide (glucose)
Polysaccharide (glycogen)
76
Do Now!! ? (P. 5)
  • What are the four macromolecules?
  • What are some differences between simple and
    complex carbohydrates?
  • Which of the following are carbohydrates?
  • CH2O
  • C6HO6
  • C12H24O12
  • C6H12O5

77
Lipids
  • Fats, oils and waxes
  • Made mostly of C and H
  • Triglycerides
  • Used for energy storage and insulation
  • Fat solid at room temperature
  • Oil Liquid at room temperature

78
Lipids (cont.) Saturated vs. Unsaturated
  • Saturated Fats ?-
  • Only Single bonds between the carbons
  • Solid at room temperature (typically)
  • More unhealthy ?
  • Unsaturated Fats ?-
  • Double bonds between the carbons
  • Liquid at room temperature (typically)
  • More healthy

79
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80
Proteins
  • Made of small carbon compounds called amino acids
  • Atoms contain carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen,
    and sometimes sulfur.

Central Carbon
81
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82
Proteins in the Body
  • Involved in nearly every function of your body.
  • structural -
  • hair, collagen, muscle, skin etc. made of
    proteins
  • enzymes
  • speed up chemical reactions

83
Nucleic Acids
  • Store and transmit genetic information.
  • Made of smaller repeating subunits called
    nucleotides
  • Composed of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus,
    and hydrogen atoms.

84
Think Pair Share Lets Try These
85
Think Pair - Share
  • Try THESE!

86
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87
Balancing Equations
  • The law of conservation of mass states matter
    cannot be created or destroyed
  • The number and types of atoms must be the SAME on
    both sides of the equations
  • Ex. ___ H2 ___O2 ? ___H2O

88
Do Now Please complete the table! ?
Chemical/ Symbol Atomic Number Atomic Mass Bonds Formed
Carbon C 6 12 4
Hydrogen H 1 1 1
Nitrogen N 7 14 3
Oxygen O 8 16 2
Phosphorus - P 15 31 5
Sulfur - S 16 32 2
89
Lets Review
  • Carbon has _____ electrons in its outermost
    energy level.
  • One carbon atom can form _____ covalent bonds
    with other atoms.
  • Bonds enable carbon atoms to bond to each other
    variety of important organic compounds.

90
Do Now!! ?
  • What are the four macromolecules of life?
  • What are some examples of saturated and
    unsaturated fats?
  • What is a trans fat?

91
Objectives
  • To explain how the body uses fats and proteins.
  • To compare and contrast saturated vs. unsaturated
    fats.
  • To discuss proteins and nucleic acids.

92
Acids and Bases
  • Acids- Releases hydrogen ions.
  • Bases- Releases hydroxide ions.
  • pH- measure of concentration of hydrogen ions in
    a solution.
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