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UNIT B EVOLUTION AND MOVEMENT OF FASHION

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Title: UNIT B EVOLUTION AND MOVEMENT OF FASHION


1
UNIT BEVOLUTION AND MOVEMENT OF FASHION
  • 2.04 Identify major fashion centers, types of
    designers, and price market categories.

2
Major fashion centers
  • New York City
  • Los Angeles
  • Atlanta
  • Chicago
  • Dallas
  • Miami
  • Seattle
  • Paris
  • Milan
  • Florence
  • Rome
  • London

3
New York City, New York
  • Largest fashion marketing center in the U.S.
  • Known for the Seventh Avenue garment district in
    Manhattan
  • Permanent showrooms of manufacturers from the
    U.S. and around the world
  • Open weekdays year round
  • Most of the production jobs have been lost to
    other countries with cheaper labor, but some
    production jobs exist in Chinatown, Queens, and
    Brooklyn.

4
New York City, New York (cont.)
  • Fashion weeks sponsored by the Council of Fashion
    Designers of America (CFDA)
  • Formed corporation called 7th on Sixth, Inc. to
    centralize runway shows
  • Shows held in tents in Bryant Park

5
Los Angeles, California
  • CaliforniaMart is the largest fashion and textile
    facility in the U.S.
  • An 82-block garment district includes designers,
    wholesalers, manufacturers, and patternmakers.
  • Hosts a fashion week five times a year
  • Primarily serves the West coast

6
  • Atlanta, Georgia
  • AmericasMart
  • Primarily serves southeast
  • Chicago, Illinoisserves central states
  • Dallas, Texas
  • International Apparel Mart
  • Primarily serves central states
  • Known for evening, bridal, and western fashion

7
  • Miami, Florida
  • Worlds largest swimwear show
  • Wholesale center for the Americas
  • Seattle, Washington

8
  • Paris, France
  • Considered the world fashion leader
  • Shows attract over 40,000 visitors and 1,100
    exhibitors from 30 countries
  • Prêt-à-porter Paris shows twice a year at the
    same times as mass-produced lines but at
    different locations

9
  • Paris, France (cont.)
  • Haute couture businesses are located in city
    fashion houses rather than in commercial
    buildings.
  • Haute couture designers must belong to Chambre
    Syndicale. The couturier (or couturiére if
    female) must be recognized as talented and
    successful to become a member.
  • Chambre Syndicale The trade association for top
    designers, which is governed by the French
    Department of Industry.

10
  • Paris, France (Cont.)
  • Chambre Syndicale
  • Sets qualifications for couture houses and
    requirements for collection showings
  • Sponsors a school to educate apprentices
  • Represents members in relations with the French
    government
  • Coordinates dates of showings

11
Paris, France (cont.)
  • Louis Vuitton Moët Hennessy (LVMH)
  • French luxury goods conglomerate
  • Christian Dior SA is the parent company.
  • Owns about 50 brands. Examples LaCroix,
    Celine, Givenchy, Donna Karan, Guerlain
    (perfumes), and Sephora (cosmetics)
  • Buys and sells brands based on the profit
    potential

12
  • Alta moda The high fashion industry in Italy.
  • Rome is the center for couture.
  • Milan is the center for high-quality
    ready-to-wear.
  • Florence is known for lower-priced ready-to-wear,
    menswear, childrens wear, and knitwear.
  • Main collections are shown in fashion fairs prior
    to the French showings.

ITALY
13
GREAT BRITAIN
  • London is the major fashion center.
  • Bond Street is the creative center.
  • Promoted by the British Fashion Council (BFC)
  • Fashion week twice a year
  • Top ready-to-wear designers belong to a co-op
    association called London Designer Collections.

14
Terms associated with fashion design
  • Collection The total merchandise in a
    designers or apparel manufacturers seasonal
    presentation, especially for high-priced
    garments.
  • Couturier (koo-tour-i-er) A male high fashion
    designer.
  • Fashion designer One who creates or adapts
    clothing and accessory designs for manufacturers,
    retailers, or individual clients.

15
Terms associated with fashion design (cont.)
  • Fashion piracy Stealing design ideas.
  • Fashion seasons Distinct retail selling periods
    in fashion marketing.
  • Garment district The area in a fashion center
    where most of the apparel companies are located.
  • Haute couture (hoat koo-tour) The name for the
    high fashion designer industry of France
    high-fashion, individually designed, original
    garments.

16
Terms associated with fashion design (cont.)
  • Alta moda The name for the high fashion
    industry in Italy.
  • Licensing A legal arrangement granting a
    manufacturer the exclusive right to produce and
    market goods that bear the name of a famous
    person.
  • Line A collection of styles offered by a
    manufacturer or designer.
  • Prêt-a-porter (prêt-a-por-tay) French term for
    ready-to-wear.

17
Terms associated with fashion design (cont.)
  • Private label Merchandise developed for a given
    store and displaying that stores label found in
    better, moderate, and budget price market
    categories.
  • Ready-to-wear Apparel mass produced in
    factories to standard size measurements.

18
Basic types of designers
  • Couture
  • Stylist One who designs by changing or adapting
    designs of others.
  • Makes lower-priced merchandise
  • Creations made during the rise stage of the
    fashion cycle
  • Primarily designs for manufacturers like The Gap,
    The Limited, and Guess
  • Freelance designer An independent designer who
    sells sketches to manufacturers.

19
Price market categories of womens apparel
  • Designer (Couture)
  • Category now almost extinct due to the extremely
    small market
  • Original, high-priced fashion custom-made for a
    very few individuals
  • One-of-a-kind extreme styles, avante-garde
  • Luxurious, expensive fabrics and trims with
    intricate details
  • Sold through the designers salon

20
Price market categories of womens apparel (cont.)
  • Designer (Couture)
  • Sell for many thousands of dollars, maybe up to
    50,000 per garment, but do not generate a profit

21
Price market categories of womens apparel (cont.)
  • Bridge
  • Has almost replaced the couture category
  • Secondary lines of well-known couture designers
  • Have the designers label
  • Most expensive ready-to-wear
  • Limited editions, small quantities offered for
    sale
  • Expensive fabrics with fine details

22
Price market categories of womens apparel (cont.)
  • Bridge
  • Sell for many hundreds of dollars, maybe as much
    as 5,000
  • Sold in fashionable dress shops and upscale
    department stores like Neiman Marcus, Saks,
    Nordstroms, and Bergdorf Goodman

23
Price market categories of womens apparel (cont.)
  • Better
  • Have a firm label rather than a designers name.
    Example Jones of New York, Liz Claiborne
  • Ready-to-wear produced in larger quantities
  • Reasonable prices
  • High quality

24
Price market categories of womens apparel (cont.)
  • Better
  • Found in specialty stores and department stores.
    Examples Macys, Marshall Field, and Lord
    Taylor
  • .

25
Price market categories of womens apparel (cont.)
  • Moderate
  • Well-known and nationally-advertised brand
    labels. Examples Jantzen, Gap, and Wrangler
  • Lesser-known or unknown designers work for the
    manufacturer.
  • Many items inspired by designer creations
  • Widely available and worn by the majority of
    America

26
Price market categories of womens apparel (cont.)
  • Moderate
  • Medium-priced merchandise
  • High volume sales and higher price margins
  • Sold primarily through department, chain, or
    specialty stores

27
Price market categories of womens apparel (cont.)
  • Budget/Discount
  • Lowest priced category
  • Created by stylists
  • Knockoffs Copies of higher-priced items.
  • Mass produced in less expensive fabrics with
    fewer details
  • Brands such as Gitano, Donkenny, Kathie Lee,
    Arizona jeans, and Cherokee

28
Price market categories of womens apparel (cont.)
  • Budget/Discount
  • Sold in discount stores and low-price chains
  • Private labels such as Arizona jeans (J.C.
    Penney), Apostrophe (Sears), and Cherokee
    (Target)
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