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Studying Life Chapter 1.3

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Studying Life Chapter 1.3 Biology = The Study Of Life Every living thing, although different, shares the same 8 characteristics Has cells Obtains and uses energy ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Studying Life Chapter 1.3


1
Studying LifeChapter 1.3
2
Biology The Study Of Life
  • Every living thing, although different, shares
    the same 8 characteristics
  • Has cells
  • Obtains and uses energy
  • Responds to stimuli / Adapts to the environment
  • Reproduces
  • Grows and develops
  • Has the same universal genetic code
  • Maintain an internal steady environment
  • As a group, living things change over time

3
Has Cells
  • Cell
  • The smallest living part of an organism
  • Organism can consist of 1 cell or trillions of
    cells
  • Cells carry out specific functions that allow
    organism to survive

4
Obtains and Uses Energy
  • All organisms must have energy to live
  • Ultimate source of energy is the sun
  • Organisms either use the sun or other organisms
    for energy
  • Metabolism
  • The sum of all the chemical reactions which an
    organism carries out for its life processes

5
Responds to Stimuli /Adapts to the Environment
  • Stimulus
  • Any change in the environment that causes a
    response
  • Response
  • The reaction of an organism to a stimulus

6
Reproduces
  • Ability to create new offspring and continue the
    species
  • Asexual reproduction
  • New organism has one parent
  • Sexual reproduction
  • New organism has two parents
  • Fitness
  • The ability to reproduce
  • Only characteristic that is necessary for the
    continuation of life

7
Growth and Development
  • Growth
  • Increase in mass of an organism
  • Development
  • Change or maturation of an organism

8
Universal Genetic Code
  • DNA
  • Deoxyribonucleic acid
  • Contains the directions for inheritance of traits

9
Maintains Internal Environment
  • Homeostasis
  • Maintenance of an internal steady state, despite
    what is happening in the external environment
  • Works like a thermostat in a house

10
Evolution
  • Change over time
  • Individual organisms cannot evolve, but groups of
    organisms can

11
Levels of Organization
Biosphere
The part of Earth that contains all ecosystems
Biosphere
Ecosystem
Community and its nonliving surroundings
Hawk, snake, bison, prairie dog, grass, stream,
rocks, air
Community
Populations that live together in a defined area
Hawk, snake, bison, prairie dog, grass
Population
Group of organisms of one type that live in the
same area
Bison herd
12
Levels of Organization
Organism
Individual living thing
Bison
Groups of Cells
Tissues, organs, and organ systems
Brain
Nervous tissue
Nervous system
Cells
Smallest functional unit of life
Nerve cell
Molecules
Groups of atoms smallest unit of most
chemical compounds
DNA
Water
13
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14
Tools And ProceduresChapter 1.4
15
The Metric System
  • Most scientists use the metric system when
    collecting data and performing experiments
  • Also called the SI system
  • ?Why
  • decimal system of measurement scaled on the
    multiples of 10 easy to use
  • Everyone else uses the metric system

16
Measurements in the Metric System
  • Length is measured in ? meters
  • Mass is measured in ? grams
  • Volume is measured in
  • ? if liquid - liters
  • ? if solid cubic centimeters
  • Temperature is measured in degrees ?0Celsius

17
The Microscope
  • Any device that produces magnified images of
    structures that are too small to see with the
    unaided eye

18
The Light Microscope vs. The Electron Microscope
  • Light Microscopes
  • ?focuses visible light rays to magnify image
  • ?can magnify up to 1000x
  • Example
  • The Compound Light Microscope
  • Uses 2 lenses and allows light to pass through
    specimen
  • Can study dead or live organisms, no smaller than
    2um.
  • Uses stains or dyes to make images easier to see
    and 3D

19
Electron Microscopes
  • ?focuses beams of electrons to magnify image
  • ?produces images 1000x greater than C.L.M.
  • ?cant observe living specimen
  • slides must be in a vaccuum
  • Examples
  • Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
  • Electrons travel across the surface
  • Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM)
  • Electrons travel through thin specimen

20
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21
T.E.M.
Human Cornea
Rat Liver Cells
22
Review Questions
  • Name an organism and give an example of how they
    demonstrate 5 of the 8 characteristics of life.
  • Using a Venn Diagram, show the differences and
    similarities between a compound microscope and an
    electron microscope.
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