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Chapter 14 : Classification of Organisms

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Chapter 14 : Classification of Organisms Taxonomy is the science of naming and classifying organisms. In this chapter you will learn about the classification system ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 14 : Classification of Organisms


1
Chapter 14 Classification of Organisms
  • Taxonomy is the science of naming and classifying
    organisms.
  • In this chapter you will learn about the
    classification system of organisms, as well as
    how to identify the scientific name of organisms.

2
Scientific Names
  • Every known organisms is given a scientific
    name. These names are in latin and represent the
    genus and species of the organism.
  • Using two names to identify an organism is known
    as binomial nomenclature.

3
Scientific Names
  • A scientific name capitilizes the genus and lower
    case is used for the species. Both the genus and
    species are written in italics.
  • Homo sapiens - you

4
Classifying Organisms
  • Carl Linnaeus arranged for a system of
    classifying organisms which uses different groups
    or taxa.
  • The form and structure of an organism is used to
    determine to which groups or taxa it belongs to.

5
Groups Domain
  • All living things are grouped into one of three
    domains
  • Archaea prokaryotic
  • Bacteria prokaryotic
  • Eukarya eukaryotic cells

Archaea bacteria which live in extreme
environments
6
Groups
  • The following are the modern groups in which
    organisms are classified into
  • Domain
  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species

7
Kingdoms
  • There Eukarya Domain is divided into 4 Kingdoms
  • Animalia animals
  • Plantae plants
  • Fungi mushrooms, etc.
  • Protozoans/algae small organisms

protozoans
8
Kingdom Animalia
  • The animal kingdom is divided into 9 smaller
    groups called phylas.
  • Each phyla is divided into groups called classes.
  • Classes are divided into smaller groups called
    orders, orders divided into families, families
    into genuss, and finally the species.

9
Classification
  • Organisms are then classified based upon their
    structures and similarities.
  • The species is the basic unit of classification.

10
How Biologists Classify
  • Biologists define a species as a group of natural
    interbreeding populations.
  • Species are classified as to their cellular
    structure, and overall structure, as well as
    their populations.

11
Classification Criteria
  • Classification of a species also uses its
    evolutionary history (phylogeny).
  • Cladistics is a method of analysis of similar
    species in the past. A cladogram compares similar
    species and changes from the fossil record of the
    past.
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