Ecology- is the scientific study of organisms and the interactions with their environment (living and nonliving things) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Ecology- is the scientific study of organisms and the interactions with their environment (living and nonliving things)

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Title: Ecology- is the scientific study of organisms and the interactions with their environment (living and nonliving things)


1
Ecology- is the scientific study of organisms and
the interactions with their environment (living
and nonliving things)
2
  • We can study it on many levels from how
    microorganisms in a drop of water interact with
    each other and the nutrients to the entire Earth

3
Methods of Study
  • Observing use the five senses to collect data
    about the surroundings
  • Experimenting set up a controlled environment
    to test occurrences
  • Modeling based on data collected, scientists
    can simulate over time what will happen

4
Levels of Organization
5
Levels of Organization
  • Species organisms of the same type that can
  • interbreed

6
Levels of Organization
  • Population a group of organisms of the same
    species in the same area

7
Levels of Organization
  • Community many populations or different species
    living in an area

8
Levels of Organization
  • Ecosystem communities and the nonliving things
    in an area
  • Biotic all organisms and living things
  • Abiotic nonliving part of the environment, but
    necessary to life

9
What are some examples?
  • Abiotic
  • Biotic

10
What are some examples?
  • Abiotic
  • sunlight
  • soil
  • water
  • temperature
  • gases (oxygen, CO2, nitrogen)
  • Biotic
  • Humans
  • animals
  • dead organisms
  • trees

11
Levels of Organization
  • Biomes several related ecosystems with similar
    climate and vegetation

12
Levels of Organization
  • Biosphere all the biomes in the Earth the
    earths surface plus 8 km above the surface and
    11 km below ANY PART OF THE EARTH with life in
    it

13
  • Interactions and interdependence in an ecosystem
    are all about Energy Transfer

14
  • The ultimate source of energy in the ecosystem is
    the sun. From the sun, plants can make their own
    food and other organisms can feed on them. Some
    other organisms can make their own food from
    inorganic compounds (chemicals not containing
    carbon)

15
Feeding Relationships
  • Autotrophs/Producers- organisms that can make
    their own food from sun or chemicals
  • Plants capture sunlight and convert CO2 and water
    into sugar (food) by photosynthesis
  • Some bacteria in extreme environments capture
    energy from inorganic compounds by chemosynthesis

16
Feeding Relationships
  • Heterotrophs/Consumers organisms that eat OR
    absorb food to obtain energy

17
Feeding Relationships
  • Herbivores- eat vegetation
  • Carnivores- eat other consumers
  • Omnivores- eat vegetation and other consumers
  • Detrivores and scavengers- feed on dead material
  • Decomposers- decompose dead material and return
    organic material to earth

18
What type is each organism?
19
What is each organism?
Heterotroph Omnivore
  • Heterotroph Carnivore

Heterotroph Decomposer
Autotroph/ Producer
20
  • FOOD WEB

21
Feeding Relationships
  • Energy flows in one direction through an
    ecosystem from the sun, through autotrophs
    through heterotrophs and all eventually lost as
    heat

22
Feeding Relationships
  • Food Chain single display of energy transfer in
    an ecosystem. Arrows point toward the organism
    receiving the energy, or rather the arrows show
    the direction of energy flow

23
Feeding Relationships
  • Food Web interwoven food chains within an
    ecosystem

24
Feeding Relationships
  • Trophic Levels each step in a food chain or food
    web or pyramid

25
  • Energy Flow Activity

26
Ecological Pyramids
  • The direction of energy flow through the trophic
    levels can be shown through food chains and food
    webs.
  • To show relative amounts of matter and energy per
    trophic level, we can use a pyramid

27
Ecological Pyramids
  • Energy Pyramid the producers are at the bottom
    with the total amount of sun energy captured.
  • Each trophic level that the energy flows into
    only receives 10 of the energy from the
    previous level.
  • The other 90 is lost as heat

28
Ecological Pyramids
  • Biomass Pyramid shows the amount of food
    available (organic matter or biomass) at each
    trophic level

29
Ecological Pyramids
  • Pyramid of numbers shows the number of organisms
    at each trophic level in an area

30
  • Food Web Analysis

31
Biogeochemical Cycles
  • While energy is transferred in one direction in
    an ecosystem, matter is cycled through the
    ecosystem in the biogeochemical cycles

32
Biogeochemical Cycles
  • Water cycle- water from the bodies of water
    evaporate and form the surface of plants
    transpire into the atmosphere. They condense back
    into liquid around tiny particles in the air
    which form the clouds. Once the clouds get too
    heavy, precipitation falls to the earth to be
    consumed/ absorbed by organisms

33
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34
Biogeochemical Cycles
  • Carbon Cycle Carbon dioxide (CO2) is absorbed by
    photosynthetic organisms to make sugars (food).
    CO2 is released by exhalation of organisms,
    burning of fossil fuels, carbon from dead
    organisms is released into the soil and compacted
    into fossil fuels over millions of years

35
Biogeochemical Cycles
  • Nitrogen Cycle nitrogen (N) from the atmosphere
    is changed into a form that plants can take up
    from the soil. Consumers can then eat and take in
    N
  • in order to make
  • proteins. Dead
  • organisms can
  • return N to the
  • soil or to the
  • atmosphere with
  • the help of bacteria

36
Biogeochemical Cycles
  • Phosphorus Cycle it does not enter the
    atmosphere, but rather is cycled through the
    soil, oceans, and organisms
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