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Research Seminar:

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Research Seminar: 4 semesters From our interest to a focused topic (by Booth, p. 41) How shall we narrow our broad interests? Reading (colloquium) Keywords (tags) A ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Research Seminar:


1
  • Research Seminar
  • 4 semesters

2
A goal and requirements for the 1 semester
  • The aim of the research seminar is to develop and
    refine MA students skills in carrying out
    research relative to both their graduation papers
    and research tasks assigned by the lecturer.
  • The students will acquire the following
    knowledge, skills, and practice 1) traditions,
    specifics, and rules for doing research in
    Russian academic entities 2) techniques and
    methods of research (how to elaborate on a theme,
    find literature, work with primary sources, frame
    theoretical frameworks, etc.), and 3) academic
    presentation.

3
requirements
  • The students must
  • -demonstrate their ability to work with
  • both primary documents and secondary literature,
  • -present final results of their research activity
    in public,
  • - write a final academic paper.

4
General stages of research work
  • 1) Elaboration over a theme for MA thesis
  • 2) a work with a supervisor,a work with primary
    and secondary sources
  • 3) Writing a text of MA thesis
  • 4) The official ceremony of its defense.

5
Stages of research work
  • 1) Elaboration over a theme for research (MA
    thesis)
  • from a wide theme to a narrow topic of your
    dissertation- how
  • Reading general literature in the field of IR (
    you will get knowledge about the field and
    attractive, hot problems)
  • A supervisor (at the http//www.sir.spbu.ru )
  • Historiography of the question is a review of
    literature relative to the theme of the MA
    thesis, to the problems raised by you
  • EBSCO publishing
  • Elibarary (through our Library, proxy-server)
    http//www.library.spbu.ru/

6
Stages of research work how to find out the
theme of the MA thesis
  • Theoretical frameworks of research is the work
    with both the same secondary sources and another
    ones. The main task is to find proper concepts
    for your facts. (This chapter might be absent in
    MA thesis)
  • Primary sources - are documents , not books and
    articles.
  • -The main problem students can not differ
    documents from the secondary literature.
  • Primary sources are pure documents
  • Secondary sources (literature) are books and
    papers where researchers give us interpretations
    of documents

7
Looking for primary sources is the way to write a
perfect MA thesis
  • Main problem is how to find proper documents.
  • Documents relative to contemporary politics are
    bound with structures (governments, international
    organizations, and etc)
  • Documents relative to history are found in
    archives.
  • The deeper you understand your theme, the more
    chances that you know where your documents are
    laid.

8
MA thesis a structure
  • Introduction
  • Chapter I or the part of introduction review of
    literature and sources applied in the research.
  • Chapter II
  • Chapter III main body of your research
  • Chapter IV
  • Conclusion
  • References

9
The main task of the seminar is not to make you
to write you MA thesis, but
  • to teach you elaborate (find literature, sources,
    and write a short text look like a sketch for a
    big MA dissertation) any possible question
    relative to the IR.
  • How?
  • I will give a narrow theme.
  • You (step by step) will
  • Find and work out secondary and primary sources
  • Write a small research (expert) paper
  • Make a presentation in the framework of the
    seminar (Other students must deeply criticize
    each other at this conference)

10
Themes for the research work
  • Public Diplomacy is the way to make influence
    foreign audience through information, education,
    and culture
  • New There are a few countries now who applied
    traditional and innovative tools to promote their
    foreign policy interests through public
    diplomacy
  • United States, Iran, Russia, France, Germany, and
    China
  • What kind of tools social networks, TV in real
    time, and traditional propaganda, education, and
    culture

11
Theory
  • Theory
  • soft power (J. Nye),
  • cultural imperialism (N. Tsvetkova),
  • the variants of Americanization, Chinazation,
    Islamization, Russinization, and etc) (many
    European scholars, J. Genow-Hecht)
  • cultural transfer many European scholars
  • Response theory some scholars from Middle East

12
Your tasks are
  • 1) to make a choice about the country (US,
    Russia, Iran, China, France or Germany?) in the
    field of the public diplomacy
  • 2) to follow the stages of research
  • 1) finding and looking through secondary
    literature, and making a short presentation about
    the literature (the main results are to cultivate
    the skills to find books and articles and to make
    grouping of the literature
  • 2) finding primary sources relative to the theme
    gtgt a short presentation, discussions gtgt
  • 3) refining and redefining both literature and
    sources
  • 4) writing a text relative to the theme
  • 5) sending to another students for reading and
    making critics
  • 6) making a presentation (conference?) and final
    discussion relative to each paper.

13
Why do we work with general literature?
  • -to find your theme
  • -to narrow your topic
  • -to define to what extent the theme has been
    studied before

14
How to find previous research? It is digging from
references to referencescase-study
  • I like to study cold war
  • 1) I take Journals about cold war in scholarly
    e-data bases
  • I look through papers and think over the proposed
    titles,topics, and so on
  • I meet cultural cold war - It is for me
  • cultural cold war my keyword
  • the defining a region or a country Europe,
    Germany

15
(No Transcript)
16
Looking through articles
17
Digging the References
18
In result
  • 1) Books, articles relative to my topic
  • 2) Tips for primary documents
  • 3) Concepts
  • 4) keywords exchanges, education, propaganda gtgt
    public diplomacy, soft power, cultural
    imperialism

19
Preliminary work to elaborate a theme for
research (homework)
  • 1) The Choice of a topic
  • US, Russian, Iranian, Chinese, French or German
    public diplomacy
  • 2) A check secondary literature about the theme
  • finding and looking through secondary literature,
    and making a short presentation about the
    literature
  • 3) Discussions
  • discussion 1 is about the definitions
  • discussion 2 is about the technics of finding
    the secondary literature
  • discussion 3 is about the literature found.

20
MA Thesis how the theme can be elaborated
  • 1) you define your general interest
  • 2) you look through general literature
  • 3) you begin narrowing your ideas in more
    definite empirical theme
  • 4) you dig profoundly relative literature
    applying keywords (the skills to find proper
    papers matter)
  • 5) you redefine your theme again is to define the
    hotline (novelty) of theme (nobody has done
    before)

21
Discussion
  • 1) What kind of secondary literature on the topic
    is visible at the first glance at...?
    (preliminary and general literature)
  • 2) How did you find it? (a technique of search)
  • And, if you can
  • 1) give a definition of public diplomacy
  • 2) make your general theme be more definite.

22
Suggested technique to find proper scholarly
literature (1 step)
  • Before, I surfed Google and find general papers
  • I have got first keywords (subject words)
  • 1) Try EBSCO, ebrary (keywords)
  • 2) Google books (good tips)
  • 4) JSTOR
  • One dilemma keywords can be different to tag a
    similar phenomenon (cultural diplomacy) an
    experience after reading

23
A suggested technique to find proper scholarly
literature (2 step)
  • Result
  • 1) you know a story
  • 2) relative scholars gt you dig their articles
  • 3) set of papers for further exploring
  • 4) you refresh the theme (from PD to Digital
    diplomacy)
  • 5) new keywords (not general subject, but the
    names of agencies)

24
A lot of books, papers and I am sinking....a
problem with grouping
  • 1) Secondary literature should be grouped, typed
    according a criterion..
  • 2) How can I elaborate criteria for grouping?
  • - Initially, by intuition some books raise
    similar questions, employ similar approaches, and
    similar concepts
  • -Then, when you have a list (50-100-200), you
    will be able to make these groups using your own
    criteria.
  • 3) No recommendation on how to hold and to
    systemize files, hard copies.
  • Only one make a list a literature with main
    theses. It will help to group.

25
A lot of books, papers and I am groupping them
without panic (result)
  • 1) you will understand, where the topic has blind
    spots (underestimated questions)
  • 2) you can give a review of previous research
  • 3) you get empirical basis (primary documents)
  • 4) you can write the first draft of a chapter

26
Homework we have to know something about the
theme
  • 1) The first glance Google, Wiki, my general
    topic gtgt
  • 2) Scholarly papers EBSCO, Ebrary, JSTOR...
  • Grouping books, papers according the criteria of
    their similarities

27
MA thesis structure
  • Introduction
  • Chapter I or the part of introduction review of
    literature and sources applied in the research.
  • Chapter II
  • Chapter III main body of your research
  • Chapter IV
  • Conclusion
  • References

28
Review of literature
  • Chapter I in my research paper

29
Why do we write the chapter about previous
research (review of literature)
  • 1) Why do we write this chapter? Why do find
    books, papers about my topic?
  • We demonstrate our knowledge of previous research
    (this is scientific ethic)
  • We demonstrate what the previous literature has
    missed (what kind of aspects of the topic)gtgt
  • We build the research question of the research.
  • We show to what extent is our research new and
    urgent.

30
The structure of the Chapter
  • The chapter is an overview of books, articles
  • 1) grouped by you and
  • 2) with the emphasis on their strong conclusions
    and weak sides (what kind of questions are beyond
    the sight of a researcher?) or/and an evolution
    of discourse
  • 3) with your conclusion about which questions
    must be studied and thus my thesis studies the
    question about...)

31
The structure of the Chapter is typical
  • Introduction what kinds of groups of previous
    literature are defined
  • Main body a description of groups of literature
  • Conclusion what is beyond the previous research
    and what I will contribute to scholarship

32
A model for the chapter Case-studyHow does a
researcher write the similar part of research?
  • 1) Introduction, p. 913
  • Can you define the main theses of the Intro?
  • 2) Main body p. 914
  • What does the author emphasize describing the
    first group of previous researchers?
  • 3) Conclusion, p. 933 (the part V)
  • What's about the first and main paragraph?

33
A model for the chapter Case-study
  • A chapter from the book Diplomatic Studies,
    Volume 5 United States and Public Diplomacy
    New Directions in Cultural and International
    History
  • Q What does the author emphasize describing the
    previous literature?

34
Dissection of the review of literature part
  • 1) Introduction, p. 5-6
  • - he is mapping (puts) the topic about public
    diplomacy among others questions relative to IR
  • - which themes in the field of public diplomacy
    are studied and how they are examined

35
Dissection of the review of literature part
  • II) The paragraph is about beginning and
    difficulties in the scholarship about public
    diplomacy
  • -topic was beyond the scholars of IR
  • Your MA thesis can do well without such passages.

36
Dissection of the review of literature part
  • III) The main body of the Chapter, p. 7-10
  • - 1 group
  • -2 group
  • -3 group
  • -4 group
  • Define these groups and underline the main
    thesis that unifies the books and papers of each
    group in the text

37
A model for the chapterCase-study
  • 1) Introduction how vast is a historiography on
    the cold war
  • 2) Main body Literature is centered around a
    discourse
  • 3) Conclusion there are some questions which are
    not studied well.
  • Hence, in your MA thesis This dissertation will
    explore the question which are beyond the sight
    of recent literature...
  • In details

38
  • Writing the Chapter from a paragraph to paragraph

39
Introduction to this Chapter
  • Phrase This chapter (part of research) is aimed
    at reviewing (estimating) the literature centered
    on US public diplomacy in Muslim world
  • Phrases about state of affairs in previous
    scholarship ( a variety of works) to what
    extent the theme was previously studied
  • Phrases about groups you have decided to brighten
    like All the literature on can be divided into
    following groups

40
Main body is your preliminary analysis of
literature (a first draft)
  • Preliminary evaluation is without finding the
    weaknesses (because we do not know the theme or
    the theme is under our research) gtgt later, we
    insert phrases of what kind of questions remained
    beyond sight of previous research
  • Footnotes every author and a discussion about
    works must be provided with footnotes on the
    bottom of a page (Chicago Manual 14 version)
  • Sidorenko E. US Public Diplomacy in Muslim World,
    2009-2011 // Title of Journal, ? 3, Vol. 1, 2012,
    p. 23-54

41
Conclusion
  • Phrases about understudied aspects, and the aim
    of our work is ..

42
Homework
  • 1) Group books, papers according the criteria of
    their similarities
  • 2) Write the first draft of a chapter according
    to this plan (with footnotes)

43
First drafts of the review of literature
  • Anticipated mistake
  • Students mix up a literature with documents
  • 1) scholarly literature is books, articles
    written by scholars.
  • 2) documents are composed by participants of a
    events (governments, officials, diplomats,
    memories, etc.)
  • 3) They are described in different parts of
    dissertation.

44
to improve writing the review of previous
literature is to write a review of a book is
  • Paragraphs
  • 1) What is a book, an article about.
  • 2) Strong and/or weak things
  • 3) Contribution to scholarship, if applicable

45
Dissecting the examples of reviews
  • Define a structure and a logic a review?
  • 1) a structure is definable formal parts
    (sections) and what are they about?
  • 2) a logic refers to the building of reviews
    ideas, theses or opinions for a reader.
  • How does author try to convince us in something?

46
Examples of review
  • 1) define the content of the paragraphs
  • 2) find positive and critical remarks
  • 3) underline the expressions for criticizing
    remarks

47
Homework 1
  • Select the most influential book or article
    relative to each group of previous papers
    mentioned you in the footnotes
  • Expand you evaluation (both positive and
    negative) of ONE book or an article in each group
    defined in the previous literature.

48
Homework for the Colloquium (20 and 27 November)
  • 1) following the review patterns write a review
    for the book selected by you and
  • 2) disseminate among students and me one-two days
    before the colloquium
  • 3) make a brief presentation and be ready to
    answer questions.
  • I am will be absent 6 and 13 of November
  • 6 November
  • 13 November

49
Homework 2
  • 1) Write the first draft of a chapter according
    to plan (with footnotes)

50
  • Introduction
  • Chapter I or the part of introduction review of
    literature and sources applied in the research.
  • Chapter II
  • Chapter III main body of your research
  • Chapter IV
  • Conclusion
  • References

51
  • What does mean primary sources?

52
Primary resources
  • Primary sources - are documents, not books and
    articles.
  • They are a foundation for our unique
    interpretation of the topic.
  • Main problem is how to find proper documents.
  • Documents relative to contemporary politics are
    bound with structures (governments, international
    organizations, and etc)
  • Documents relative to history are found in
    archives.
  • The deeper you understand your theme, the more
    chances that you know where your documents are
    laid.

53
  • How and where can we find appropriate primary
    documents for our research?

54
1) To find documents is to
  • 1) to define agencies, structures, and another
    actors involved in conducting the policy (public
    diplomacy)
  • 2) check their web-pages to find official
    documents
  • 3) to find research institutes, advisory
    agencies, parliamentary structures, and
    accountability offices, which give evaluation
    reports.

55
For example US Public diplomacy
  • 1) DOS
  • 2) US AID
  • 3) BBG and all the TV Channels
  • 4) Committees at the US Congress (Foreign Affairs
    and Foreign Relations at the HR and Senate)
    Congress Laws, resolutions
  • 5) Office of General Inspector
  • 6) Interagency Working Group
  • 7) Advisory Commission on PD
  • 8) National Archive Records Administration

56
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57
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58
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59
A task to work out resources (at home)
  • 1) Define agencies involved in implementing the
    PD (describe them)
  • 2) Find documents in Web-pages of these agencies,
    look through and
  • 3) Answer, what kind of information can be
    retrieved from these documents.
  • 4) a brief presentation about 1, 2,3

60
  • How are the found documents grouped?

61
Groups of primary sources to describe pd of any
country
  • 1) documents of strategic level are strategies,
    policy papers, official statements where aims and
    tasks, and priorities (regions, problems, and
    directions) can be defined
  • - in order to find is to define the main
    officials and the Bureau at the MFA, advisers of
    presidents
  • 2)documents of practical policy are papers, laws,
    resolutions, statements of agencies involved in
    the implementation of pd
  • 1) agencies of educational exchanges
  • 2) agencies of cultural programs and
  • 3) agencies of information programs

62
Groups of primary sources to describe pd of any
country
  • 3) documents of final results are evaluations
    which measure programs of pd accomplished
  • -by legislative branch of power
  • -by special agencies authorized to make it

63
Case-study (digging the documents is defining new
ones)
  • 1) Looking for general information about US PD -
  • Senate hearings were opened
  • http//foreign.senate.gov/
  • 2) New agency was found Global Strategic
    Engagement Center
  • 3) New facts, agencies, strategies must be
    googled

64
The analysis of the review of literature chapter
  • - presentation according to the draft
  • -me remarks

65
Next task
  • 1) to classify the documents according the
    proposed groups (strategic, implementation,
    results)
  • 2) Do documents give link to new documents?

66
Primary documents
  • 1) we read, analyze, classify them and we move to
    writing a main body of a research
  • 2) We do not write a chapter or paragraph on
    documents now. It will be done later.
  • 3) We are reading texts to get empirical facts
    from primary sources

67
  • Methods (technique) of documents' analysis

68
From documents to a story main body of the MA
thesis
  • We have a lots of documents.
  • How can we analyze them in order to tell our
    story about the topic?
  • To make the outline

69
The modes of the holding and analysis of documents
  • Terrible questions for each researcher to be
    resolved on this stage of research are the
    following
  • How can we hold the documents found and how can
    retrieve and analyze a raw data from documents?
  • 1 Approach each document is printed and stored
    in a foldergtgt a work with a markergtgt a transfer
    of main facts into your text (you are making an
    analysis while writing a text of your research)
  • Failure the analysis is absent, and the text
    will be rewritten several times to compose facts
    in more proper manner. The work is descriptive.

70
Inside folder how the documents should be
arranged?
  • - according to agencies?
  • -according to facts?
  • -according to questions elaborated by a
    researcher?
  • -According to chapters of the main body of
    research (strategies, agencies, activities,
    results with evaluations)?
  • It depends on your experience.

71
to retrieve facts from documents?
  • 2 approach
  • First step every documents is converted into a
    file with the definite title. Title consists of
    the indication of the period of time relative to
    facts mentioned in the document a fact itself
    (what's about the document)
  • Example

72
Dates in the titles of files are to know the
period of time covered by documents and to
arrange them.
73
2 approach ps
  • 2 step we make numerous folders of files
    (documents) according our own criteria of
    classification
  • -agencies which issued a documents,
  • -countries
  • -events
  • Example

74
The main weakness of classification according
agencies problems and countries, and facts as
well are beyond the sight of a researcher.
75
2 approach ps
  • Third step We retrieve some facts, main ideas
    and so on from the documents into a special table
    (a separate file) in order to create an outline
    of our story every item can be sorted, found,
    and arranged according to a structure of a text.

76
The outline (the format will depend of a
personality of a researcher)
  • 1) keeps the source (www...) of information and
    a link to a full text of document in our PC
  • 2) gives a sketch of a story
  • 3) arranges data according to elaborated plan of
    the text, questions raised in documents, and
    activities discussed theregtgt
  • 4) the outline is almost a text of our research
    to be refined, shorted, and re-told by your
    language and through your concept.

77
Homework 2
  • 1) to classify the documents according the
    proposed groups (strategic, implementation,
    results)
  • 2) Do documents give link to new documents?

78
Homework
  • 1) Compose My Table of Facts
  • - use 5-10-15 Documents
  • - range facts according to the dates, stages of
    policy (plan-projects-results)
  • 2) Suggest a plan of the main body
  • Chapter ...- strategies, concepts, goals
  • Chapter...-how policy was conducted...(projects)
  • Chapter...- outcomes, results...
  • 3) Make a presentation about
  • -where did you find your documents?
  • -how did you compose a table?
  • -did you propose a plan for an empirical
    description of events?

79
Approching to a main body of a paper is to
arrange facts in a table
80
  • Introduction
  • Chapter I or the part of introduction review of
    literature and sources applied in the research.
  • Chapter II
  • Chapter III main body of your research
  • Chapter IV
  • Conclusion
  • References

81
a preliminary plan of a text is to re-arrange or
sort your data in the table
  • You are thinking my main body of the text will
    be about the strategies, agencies (chapter 2),
    programs of public diplomacy (chapter 3), and
    perhaps about the case studies (chapter 4) gtgt you
    are sorting table data according to the number of
    the proposed chapter

82
Tasks for homework documents are transferred in
an outline
  • 1) to download some helpful documents for the
    research
  • 2) to classify these documents (think over how
    they should be classified for your convenience to
    work with them) making folders and files
    (strategic d., documents about implementation of
    a policy, d. about final results)
  • 3) to compose a short outline with links to the
    files and sources of information.

83
Tasks for homework Expanding the outline
  • 1) continue the filling the table with new facts,
    events taking from the primary sources
  • 2) continue working with the secondary literature
    to enrich the Review of the literature chapter
  • 3) when the outline is ready (it will never be
    ready to write a complete story), re-read it and
    think over a plan (a structure) of your text

84
The plan of a paper is ready
  • gtgt How to prepare the text of the main body?
  • 1) to prepare a rough text filled with facts,
    events, cases and to link paragraphs (the first
    and final sentences of every paragraph)
  • A paragraph is a piece of your story defined by
    its logic, completeness, and inherent unity)
    one thought, events, etc is one paragraph.
  • 2) to re-read, re-write, and put aside in order
    to think over a conclusion (further, to make a
    conceptional frames for your empirical findings,
    to find your concept)
  • 3) to refine the text is to mix facts (taken from
    source) with your own discussion.

85
  • It is time to write a chapter or a paragraph
    about sources applied in the research to start
    composing References

86
  • Introduction
  • Chapter I or the part of introduction review of
    literature and sources applied in the research.
  • Chapter II
  • Chapter III main body of your research
  • Chapter IV
  • Conclusion
  • References

87
The aim and the content of this chapter
  • 1) the aim is to demonstrate the newness of your
    research, to give evidence that the conclusions
    are based on the solid documentary foundation.
    to show some limitations.
  • 2) the content is a description of the types of
    documents classified by the following approaches

88
PRIMARY DOCUMENTS WHAT SHOULD WE MENTION
  • 1) why did we select these documents?
  • 2) can we rely on them to reconstruct event, make
    conclusion?
  • 3) what kind of data is inside? gtgt
  • - critical analysis of a document an
    assumption to discuss
  • 1) Why a document was created? The aim of a
    document as a text?
  • 2) Who is the author of document?

89
What should we emphasize wile write a chapter
about primary documents
  • 1) a contribution to our research with new data
  • What kind of information do they bring for our
    research?
  • What does the data matter?
  • 2) a limitation of research
  • what kinds of documents are absent?

90
The classification (assorting) of documents
  • I) according to unpublished and published
    documents (archival and published) groups gtgt
    there are two groups.
  • according to the deepest historical tradition
    documents which have a power of a law and
    narrative documents
  • II) according to agencies who issued a documents

91
Types of documents in the text
  • 1) documents of international organizations
  • 2) International Acts (agreements)
  • 3) documents of executive branch of power (MFA,
    government, DoS)
  • 4) documents of legislative branch of power
    (parliament, congress)

92
  • 5) documents of non-governmental organizations,
  • 6) memories,
  • 7) statistics
  • The groups can be shortened in the case of a few
    documents applied gtgt
  • (e.g., I have some documents issued by various
    governmental agencies of the United States) gtgt

93
  • 1) the documents of the NSC
  • 2) the documents of the White House,
  • 3) the documents of the DoS......
  • Or
  • 1) the documents of Russian governmental
    bodies...
  • 2) the materials of Turkish TV channels....

94
Footnotes for paragraph about primary documents
  • 1) If you have a plenty of documents, then for
    example formula works in footnotes
  • 14. See, for example NSC paper 23....
  • 2) If you have a few documents, then a list
    formula works in footnotes
  • 15. NSC Paper 24 NSC Paper 65.....

95
Footnotes for the rest
  • 1) Literature articles and books no strict
    rules for MA students
  • Sytnik A. Russian Public Diplomacy // Journal
    of..., Vol. 1, 3, 2012. P. 1-16
  • Torakci A. New Turkish Media Diplomacy. Moscow
    MUP, 2012. P. 13
  • 2) Documents
  • Title of d. // Title of Web-page ltwww...gt (date
    of retrieval)
  • Title of d. // Title of Web-page. URL www...

96
References The list of sources and literature
applied in the research
  • 1) the main rule for the Russian Federation
  • The list of documents must be separated from the
    list of books and articles

97
  • References
  • I. Sources (Documents) can be listed
    alphabetically or by groups relative to the
    agencies
  • 1) Documents of the Brazilian MFA
  • 1) America and its partners. NSC paper 109, 1989
    ...
  • 2) Documents of Russia Today
  • 23) Youth in Chinese diplomacy....Documentary,
    October 22, 2012 // RT ltwww.....gt
  • II. Literature must be divided into two groups
  • 1) Books
  • 2) Articles

98
References
  • III. Newspapers two variants by the title of
    magazine or by title of a paper itself
  • New York Times, December 03, 2014
  • Barak Obama and Vladimir Putin // New York Times,
    December 03, 2014, p. A.3

99
homework
  • 1) Empirical chapters
  • 2) The chapter about documents you have used.
  • 3) Begin composing References (Sources)

100
Tasks for homework documents
  • 1) define the agencies involved in your public
    diplomacy
  • 2) retrieve the documents about the strategies,
    implementations and results
  • 3) compose the outline for the main body ( the
    table)
  • 4) read, decide over the essence of the chapters,
    assort the facts according to your chapters

101
Tasks for homework documents are transferred in
an outline
  • 1) to download some helpful documents for the
    research
  • 2) to classify these documents (think over how
    they should be classified for your convenience to
    work with them) making folders and files
    (strategic d., documents about implementation of
    a policy, d. about final results)
  • 3) to compose a short outline with links to the
    files and sources of information.

102
Tasks for homework a main body of MA
  • 1) compose a rough text filled with empirical
    facts, events (from a chapter to chapter. Here
    from a paragraph to a paragraph)
  • 2) link the paragraphs.
  • 3) send to each other and tell a story (a
    presentation)

103
Tasks for homework Expanding the outline
  • 1) continue the filling the table with new facts,
    events taking from the primary sources
  • 2) continue working with the secondary literature
    to enrich the Review of the literature chapter
  • 3) when the outline is ready (it will never be
    ready to write a complete story), re-read it and
    think over a plan (a structure) of your text

104
Some words about footnotes
105
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106
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107
1) Bilateral agreements2) Documents (materials)
of the DOS3) Reports of US AIDNo grouping by a
location of a documents
108
Quote marks must be deleted
109
Public Diplomacy in the Middle East and South
Asia Is the Message Getting Through? Hearing
Before the Subcommittee on The Middle East and
South Asia of the Committee on Foreign Affairs
House of Representatives, 110th Congress, 1st
Session, May16, 2007. Wash., D.C. GPO, 2007
110
Introduction
  • Chapter I or the part of introduction review of
    literature and sources applied in the research.
  • Chapter II
  • Chapter III main body of your research
  • Chapter IV
  • Conclusion
  • References

111
Refining you own thoughts, ideas
  • To be explicit is
  • 1) to express one idea by one sentence one
    paragraph, if you need.
  • 2) conclusions must be matched to previous logic
    of the text.

112
Introduction and conclusion to research
conclusion
  • Conclusion is easy to write, if
  • You have made conclusions in each chapter gtgt
  • The plan of the conclusion
  • 1) you give relative information about the aim
    and objective of the research (it will done
    later)
  • 2) you repeat the main conclusions from the
    chapters, giving your my ideas and reflections
  • 3) make 1-2 paragraphs about the main idea
  • The main mistake students give new information,
    conclusion and a generalization. No!!!. Strict
    relationship between chapters, their discourse
    and the conclusion

113
Introduction
  • formal requirements for MA thesis
  • 1) why do we need to study this topic?
  • 1-2 paragraphs are about problem, situation,
    context
  • 1-2 paragraphs are answer the question, why your
    topic is urgent? (the problem in the area of
    politics, under weak studies, new
    interpretations, etc.) gtgt
  • 2) The aimresearch question and objectives of
    the research
  • The aim is about the main outcomes of the
    research or what question you want to answer
  • The Objectives are means to achieve the aim.

114
  • e.g.,
  • The aim of the research is to estimate
    (demonstrate) the contemporary development of the
    Russian cultural policy
  • Objectives (by means of)
  • 1) to give historical review
  • 2) to estimate the political and cultural goals
  • 3) to show the works of agencies involved.......

115
Introduction
  • 3) methods of research historical, system
    analysis, comparative, content-analysis (math),
    discursive analysis (text) supervisor!!!!
  • 4) if you have no a separate chapter about
    literature and sources, you write several
    paragraphs about them
  • 5) structure of the MA thesis

116
Homework
  • 1) Introduction aims and objectives....

117
Theoretical frameworks of research
  • It is not a compulsory work and chapter in MA
    thesis,
  • But we must know how to deal with concepts,
    theories taken from books and which are suitable
    for our research
  • In order to deal with theories is to do the
    following

118
  • 1) answer the question what is a concept and
    how it differs from an idea or an ordinary thesis
    in a conclusion to a paper, a book?
  • -it bears a notion (term) like realism, cultural
    imperialism, Turkishness, regionalization
  • -an author gives his own definition of this
    notion or retells the previous one.
  • -it explains the facts (in the text) through the
    definite discourse ( set of terminology, words)gtgt

119
  • e.g., if the author explains the US public
    diplomacy in the terms of the cultural
    imperialism, he will apply the following
    discourse impose, one-side policy for the
    expense of local culture, exerted, exploits,
    pressure, etc.
  • But, if .in the terms of cultural transfer or
    dialogues of cultures, the discourse will be much
    more softer two-sides cultural exchange,
    globalization, dialogue,intercultural
    communication

120
  • -it generalizes it happens when data (facts) are
    various, they paint a picture of a story and
    this picture is complete that a concept become a
    conclusion.
  • -it interprets the facts that give an explanation
    of a process (the development)

121
  • 2) where can concepts be found?
  • - general literature
  • -literature about your topicgtgt
  • -digging another books and papers according the
    title of a notion (they will be related to
    different themes)

122
  • 3) what can I do with all these ideas, theories,
    concepts?
  • -to classify and write a separate chapter in the
    MA thesis (Russian approach all the discussion
    over concepts are included in the review of
    literature chapter)
  • -

123
what can I do with all these ideas, theories,
concepts? (in future)
  • -you can apply a previous concept to confirm it
    on the basis on your own independent findings
  • e.g., Bourdieu and his concept about cultural and
    social capital, reproduction gtgt
  • Tsvetkova applied it to explain the cultural and
    educational policy of both the USA and USA during
    the Cold War (I confirm it)

124
what can I do with all these ideas, theories,
concepts?
  • -you can apply a previous concept and refute it.
  • e.g., Tsvetkova's idea that cultural
    imperialism is dead due to the fact that every
    receiving nation resists to incoming cultural
    values and saves its traditionalism

125
what can I do with all these ideas, theories,
concepts?
  • -to deliver your concept (in a future)
  • -It can happened if you will define the
    development of new phenomenon in IR (Tsvetkova'a
    new project about netcitizenship in international
    relations)gtgt explanation of its development will
    be your concept
  • -if you find a more appropriate notion than the
    previous researchers to explain the traditional
    events and disseminate your approach through
    books, papers and conferences.

126
At home to finish baby-disseration a sketch
(10 April)
  • You must write
  • 1) Inroduction
  • 2) review of literature and primary documents
  • 3) main body of the text with footnotes
  • 4) Conclusion
  • 5) references
  • You must disseminate to each other
  • You must prepare questions and critical remarks
    to each other

127
10th of April
  • -Presentation 5 minutes
  • -Questions from students

128
17 of April, 2014
  • Research seminar by Pr. Steven Schneider
  • Hypertex Hypertextual Reading and Writing in the
    21st Century
  • 5 pm
  • Room 124

129
24 of April, 2014
  • Research Design
  • Reading, Discussing and applying to your real MA
    thesis ideas from the following books
  • 1) Designing Social Inquiry by G. King
  • 2) The Craft of Research by W. Booth
  • Read from King, Chapters I and II
  • Read from Booth, Chapters I, II, III, and IV

130
From our interest to a focused topic (by Booth,
p. 41)
  • How shall we narrow our broad interests?
  • Reading (colloquium)
  • Keywords (tags)
  • A small story in a larger context make comments
    for pp. 46-48
  • My research is a part of what? (a larger story)
  • My research is valued by what (your stance,
    ideology)

131
Planning your project (by Booth, p. 37)
  • A main criterion for selection of a topic
  • Available data (a source of information) that
    bring evidence (empirical facts)
  • to check the topic in both literature and
    documents

132
Name your topic, p. 49, 5054-55
  • Answer please
  • I am trying to learn about __________________,
  • because I want to find out _________________
  • Read again pp. 54-55
  • (FOR TOPICS FOCUSED ON A PARTICULAR FIELD)

133
From a topic to problem (p.56 and earlier)
  • I study it in order to understand (resolve) a
    problem
  • How do you understand a research problem?
  • A research problem is motivated by incomplete
    knowledge or misunderstanding (p. 59)
  • Use example on p. 60 and 62,66 for your own
    research topic

134
P. 66
  • Topic I am studying the differences among
    various nineteenth- century versions of the story
    of the Alamo
  • 2. Question because I want to find out how
    politicians used stories of great events to shape
    public opinion,
  • 3. Conceptual Significance in order to help
    readers under-
  • stand how politicians use elements of popular
    culture to ad- vance their political goals,
  • 4. Potential Practical Application so that
    readers can better protect themselves from
    unscrupulous politicians.

135
King, pp. 4, 6, 7, 10
  • What is qualitative research?
  • What is empirical research?
  • What is inference ?
  • What is generalization?

136
Homework,
  • 29 of April instead of 8 of May (1520), Room?
  • 16 of April instead of 15 of May (1520), Room140
  • Or two classes on the 16th of May?
  • Booth, chapters 5-11 (5-16)
  • King, chapters 1-2 (1-2)

137
A final class
  • 2 Parts
  • 1) mini-disseratations
  • 2) a study of
  • Booth, chapters 5-11 (5-16 )
  • King, chapters 1-2 (1-2 )

138
Booth, chapters 5-11 (5-16 )
  • We move from a topic to problem to research
    question
  • Sources (documents and secondary literature),
    page 75-
  • 1) We flip and skim sources reasons of doing it.
  • 2) A factor of reliability of sources.

139
Booth,
  • Argumentation, p. 113
  • 1) how can we support our claim(s)?
  • Page 114- In a research report, you make a
    claim, back it with reasons based on evidence,
    acknowledge and respond - explain the notions

140
Booth, chapter 12
  • Drafting
  • 1) Page 190 2 approaches to make a text.
  • 2) Page 192 Dont Structure Your Report Around
    the Topics of Your Data

141
Booth, chapter 14
  • Introductions
  • Page 224 three elements in Introduction?

142
King, pp. 4, 6, 7, 10
  • What is qualitative research?
  • What is empirical research?
  • What is inference ?
  • What is generalization?

143
Components of Research Design, pp. 15
  • Research question
  • Name the ideal criteria for a research question,
    p. 15
  • Theory
  • Name the main criteria to deal with theories
    existed and nonexistent
  • Data
  • What does it mean to know how data was
    generated?

144
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145
A final exam (a combination of RS AP)
  • A list of questions to be answered
  • You will write an answer to a question
  • Date
  • Preliminary
  • 28 of May
  • 11 am
  • No exam
  • 29 of June

146
Research seminarconclusion
  • 1) to obtain the pass evaluation (RS
    Analytical work) I need final pieces of the
    paper to be defended like a MA Thesis
  • -December ____, at ____, Room _____
  • 2) Colloquium on literature
  • The exam is a question relative to books read
    and presented by you.
  • December ____, at ____, Room _____
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