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How to make a Biomolecules booklet

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Title: Carbon Compounds 2-3 Foldable Instructions Author: HP Authorized Customer Last modified by: admin Created Date: 9/25/2008 1:47:06 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: How to make a Biomolecules booklet


1
How to make a Biomolecules booklet
Fold two pieces of paper in half to make a
booklet. Staple together so the pages dont fall
apart. (Front Page) Page1 Title and The
Element Carbon Page 2 Macromolecules plus
graphic organizer Page 3 Carbohydrates Page 4
Lipids Page 5 Proteins Page 6 Proteins
continued Biological catalysts and enzymes Page
7 Nucleic Acids Page 8 Indicators
2
Biomolecules Carbon Compounds
3
The Element Carbon
  • Carbon is the most abundant element found in
    living
  • things.
  • Carbon has 4 valence electrons which enable it to
    form
  • strong covalent bonds with other atoms.
  • It can bond with other carbon atoms to form rings
    and
  • very long chains which can be twisted and
    folded into
  • millions of different, very large, and
    complex shapes.

4
The Element Carbon
Graphite
Diamond
Bucky-ball
Nanotube
Glucose
5
Macromolecules
  • All living things are made up carbon
  • and a combination of other elements
  • referred to as biomolecules
  • Biomolecules are very
  • large molecules called
  • macromolecules.
  • Each macromolecule is made up of
  • small individual units called
  • monomers
  • The macromolecules are formed by a
  • process known as polymerization.

6
Macromolecule Graphic Organizer
All Living Things
Are made up of -
Macromolecules
Large molecules of many carbon atoms bonded
together with other elements
Monomers - Single units
Formed by -
Bond to form -
Polymerization
Polymers
7
Four Groups of Organic Compounds
  • Biomolecules are also
  • known as organic
  • compounds.
  • There are four groups
  • of organic compounds
  • found in living things
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • Nucleic Acids
  • Proteins

8
Carbohydrates
  • Carbohydrates are compounds made up
  • of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms
  • bonded together
  • Single sugar carbohydrates
  • are called monosaccharides
  • (mono- one)
  • Two single sugars bonded
  • together are called a
  • disaccharide. (di- two)
  • Large macromolecules formed
  • by the bonding of a long
  • chain of monosaccharides are
  • called polysaccharides.
  • (poly- many)

9
Carbohydrates
  • Functions of carbohydrates include
  • Living things use carbohydrates as their main
    source of energy
  • Living things store carbohydrates as complex
    sugars known as starches
  • Plants also use carbohydrates for structural
    purposes

10
Lipids
  • Lipids are macromolecules made mostly from
  • carbon and hydrogen atoms
  • Lipids are composed of fatty acids and
  • glycerol
  • Functions
  • - Lipids can be used as stored energy.
  • - Some lipids are important parts
  • of biological membranes and
  • waterproof coverings

11
Lipids
  • The common categories of lipids are
  • fats
  • oils
  • waxes
  • steroids

12
Lipids
  • Sudan III solution is an indicator solution for
    fats lipids. It turns red in the presence of
    fats lipids.

13
Proteins
  • Proteins are macromolecules that contain
  • nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
  • Proteins are large
  • molecules (polymers)
  • made up of monomers
  • called amino acids.
  • Biuret Solution is an
  • indicator solution
  • for proteins. It turns
  • blue-violet in the presence
  • of proteins.

14
Proteins
  • Functions of proteins
  • include
  • Some proteins control the
  • rate of the bodys chemical
  • reactions and regulate cell
  • processes.
  • Some proteins are used to
  • form bones and muscles.
  • Other proteins transport
  • substances into or out of
  • cells or help to fight
  • disease.

15
Biological Catalyst
  • A catalyst is a substance that speeds up the rate
    of a chemical reaction.
  • Catalysts work by lowering a reactions
    activation energy.

16
Enzymes
  • Enzymes are proteins that act as biological
    catalysts.
  • Enzymes speed up chemical reactions by lowering
    activation energies.

17
Enzymes
  • Proteins make efficient catalysts because their
    shapes are very specific.

18
Nucleic Acids
  • Nucleic acids are macromolecules
  • containing hydrogen, oxygen,
  • nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus.
  • Nucleic acids are polymers
  • assembled from individual
  • monomers known as
  • nucleotides.
  • Nucleotides include
  • of three parts
  • - a 5-carbon sugar
  • - a phosphate group
  • - a nitrogenous base

19
Nucleic Acids
  • Functions
  • Nucleic acids store
  • and transmit genetic
  • information.
  • There are two kinds of nucleic acids,
  • -ribonucleic acid
  • (RNA)
  • -deoxyribonucleic
  • acid (DNA).

20
Nucleic Acids
  • Differences in DNA and RNA
  • DNA is double stranded
  • RNA is single stranded
  • DNA does not contain the base Uracil
  • Adenine, guanine, and Cytosine are found in both
    DNA and RNA are the same

21
Indicators
  • Sudan III solution is an indicator solution for
    fats lipids. It turns red in the presence of
    fats lipids.
  • Benedicts solution is an indicator solution for
    simple sugars. It changes from blue to yellow,
    orange or red.
  • Iodine solution is an indicator solution for
    complex sugars. It changes from brown to blue
    /purple.
  • Biuret Solution is an indicator solution for
    proteins. It turns blue-violet in the presence
  • of proteins

22
  • Large carbohydrate molecules such as starch are
    known as
  • a. lipids.
  • b. monosaccharides.
  • c. proteins
  • d. polysaccharides.

23
2. Many lipids are formed from glycerol and a.
fatty acids. b. monosaccharides. c. amino
acids. d. nucleic acids.
24
  • 3. The monomers of proteins are called-
  • Starches
  • Nucleotides
  • Sugars
  • Amino acids

25
4. Which of the following statements about
cellulose is true? a. Animals make it and use
it to store energy. b. Plants make it and use it
to store energy. c. Animals make it and use it
as part of the skeleton. d. Plants make it and
use it to give structural support to cells.
26
5. A major difference between polysaccharides
and proteins is that a. plants make
polysaccharides, while animals make proteins. b.
proteins are made of monomers, while
polysaccharides are not. c. polysaccharides are
made of monosaccharides, while proteins are made
of amino acids. d. proteins carry genetic
information, while polysaccharides do not.
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