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Exodus and Covenant

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Title: Exodus and Covenant


1
Exodus and Covenant
  • The relationship between God and Israel

2
Brief Review of Exodus 1-3
  • The family of Jacob (Israel) goes to Egypt to
    escape famine at the end of Genesis
  • Exodus opens (11-7) with the passing of
    generations and the multiplication of the
    Israelites
  • The Egyptians fear their rising power (18-9) and
    so increase their workload (111), but it does
    not work (112-13)
  • They then try genocide
  • Hebrew midwives Shiprah and Puah do not
    cooperate (118-19)
  • Killing of the male babies takes its toll (122)
  • Moses survives (21-10) and is called by God to
    lead the people (31-423)

3
The Task of Moses
  • 312 .and this shall be the sign for you that
    it is I who sent you when you have brought the
    people out of Egypt, you shall worship God on
    this mountain.
  • The place is Sinai (also called Horeb)

4
Some Mapping
5
The Conflict
  • Exod 51-2 Afterward Moses and Aaron went to
    Pharaoh and said, Thus says the Lord, the God of
    Israel, Let my people go, so that they may
    celebrate a festival to me in the wilderness.
    But Pharaoh said, Who is the Lord, that I should
    heed him and let Israel go? I do not know the
    Lord , and I will not let Israel go.
  • Pharaoh does not recognize the power of this God
  • Israel not thrilled either already not crazy
    about Moses and then their workload is increased
    (521)
  • Moses then complains to God (522)

6
Gods Task
  • God must prove Gods-self worthy to Pharaoh (Exod
    61)
  • Then the Lord said to Moses, Now you shall
    see what I will do to Pharaoh Indeed, by a
    mighty hand he will let them go by a mighty hand
    he will drive them out of his land.
  • God must also prove Gods-self worthy to the
    Israelites (Exod 66-8)
  • I am the Lord, and I will free you from the
    burden of the Egyptians and deliver you from
    slavery to them. I will redeem you with an
    outstretched arm and with mighty acts of
    judgment. I will take you as my people , and I
    will be your God. You shall know that I am the
    Lord your God, who has freed you from the burdens
    of the Egyptians. I will bring you into the land
    that I swore to give Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob I
    will give it to you for a possession. I am the
    Lord.

7
Proofs of Gods Presence
  • Exod 71 You shall speak all that I command you,
    and your brother Aaron shall tell Pharaoh to let
    the Israelites go out of his land. But I will
    harden Pharaohs heart, and I will multiply my
    signs and wonders in the land of Egypt. When
    Pharaoh does not listen to you, I will lay my
    hand upon Egypt and bring my people the
    Israelites, company by company, out of the land
    of Egypt by great acts of judgment. The
    Egyptians shall know that I am the Lord, when I
    stretch out my hand against Egypt and bring the
    Israelites out from among them.
  • Aarons rod can turn into a snake and that is
    supposed to be a wonder that will impress the
    Egyptians but the sorcerers of Pharaoh can do
    it, too. And even though Aarons snake swallows
    all others, Pharaoh does not budge. (88-13)
  • Must turn now to 10 plagues or proofs of Gods
    presence

8
1 Water to Blood
  • Erastus Salisbury Field
  • He Turned Their Waters into Blood
  • Asks to let people go three days into wilderness
    to worship (716)
  • Gives a sign..By this you shall know that I am
    the Lord (717)
  • Magicians could replicate the act (722)
  • Pharaohs heart stayed hardened (7 22)

9
2 Frogs
  • Requests again for a worship time (81)
  • Plague of frogs comes over all the land (86)
  • Magicians replicate (87)
  • Pharaoh says take frogs away and I will let the
    people worship (88), but reneges (815)

10
3 Gnats
  • No request, just a sign dust to gnats (816)
  • Magicians cannot replicate it (818)
  • Magicians say This is the finger of God!
    (819)

11
4 Flies
  • Request for release (820) to worship God
  • God sets apart Goshen (territory of Israelites)
    (822-23) Thus I will make a distinction between
    my people and your people
  • Pharaoh seems to relent (828), but does not once
    the flies are gone (832)

12
5 Diseased Livestock
  • J.M.W. Turner
  • Request again (91)
  • All livestock of the Egyptians struck dead, but
    none of the Israelites (96)
  • Pharaoh refuses to act (97)

13
6 Boils
  • No request, just a command (98) soot to dust
    to boils
  • Festering boils on everything human, animals,
    magicians (910-11)
  • THE LORD hardens Pharaohs heart (912)

14
7 Thunder and Hail
  • Same request (913)
  • Rationale vv 15-16 For by now I could have
    stretched out my hand and struck you and your
    people with pestilence, and you would have been
    cut off from the earth. But this is why I let
    you live to show you my power, and to make my
    name resound through all the earth.
  • Pharaoh still refuses to let them go once the
    storm has stopped

15
8 Locusts
  • Opens with hardening of Pharaohs heart by God
    (101) that I may show these signs of mine
    among them, and that you may tell your children
    and your grandchildren how I have made fools of
    the Egyptians and what signs I have done among
    them so that you may know that I am the Lord.
  • It is really all about the Israelites and not the
    Egyptians or the Pharaoh
  • The officials plead with Pharaoh to let them go
    (107 How long shall this fellow be a snare to
    us? Let the people go, so that they may worship
    the Lord their God do you not yet understand
    Egypt is ruined?)
  • Pharaoh says he will let them go (v. 8), but will
    not let the children go (vv 10-11)
  • The Lord hardens Pharaohs heart again (v.20)

16
9 Darkness
  • No warning again just a three day darkness
    (921-23)
  • Pharaoh says they can all go, but flocks stay (v
    24). Moses says they need flocks to make
    sacrifices (vv 25-26)
  • The Lord hardens Pharaohs heart again (v 27) and
    Pharaoh dismisses Moses with a warning (v 28 and
    the panel next to this one)

17
10 Death of the Firstborn
  • Warning comes of it with description in chapter
    11
  • Passover is instituted in chapter 12
  • Plague strikes in 1229-31
  • The Exodus occurs in 1233-42
  • More Passover regulations in the end of chapter
    12 and in chapter 13

18
Exodus 124-8
  • Moses said, Thus says the Lord About midnight,
    I will go out through the land of Egypt. Every
    firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from
    the first born of the Pharaoh who sits on his
    throne to the firstborn of the female slave who
    is behind the handmill, and all of the firstborn
    of the livestock. Then there will be a loud cry
    throughout the whole land of Egypt, such as had
    never been or ever will be again. But not a dog
    shall growl at any of the Israelites not at
    people, not at animals so that you may know
    that the Lord makes a distinction between Egypt
    and Israel. Then all of these officials of yours
    shall come down to me, and bow low to me, saying
    Leave us, you and all the people who follow
    you. After that I will leave. And in hot
    anger, he left Pharaoh.

19
Death of Pharaohs Firstborn Son Sir Lawrence
Alma Tadema
20
Passover
  • Slaughter a lamb
  • Dip a brush in the blood and touch the lintel of
    your door and the doorposts with it
  • When the Lord moves through, blood will be seen
    and the home will be passed over
  • Unleavened bread and roasted lamb are foods for
    people on the move
  • It is done to remember deliverance

21
Other Challenges
  • Crossing the Red Sea 1411-12 Was it because
    there were no graves in Egypt that you have taken
    us away to die in the wilderness? What have you
    done to us bringing us out of Egypt? Is this not
    the very thing we told you in Egypt, Let us
    alone and let us serve the Egyptians? For it
    would have been better for us to serve the
    Egyptians than to die in the wilderness.
  • V 13-14 Moses said to the people. Do not be
    afraid, stand firm, and see the deliverance that
    the Lord will accomplish for you today for the
    Egyptians you see today you shall never see
    again. The Lord will fight for you, and you only
    have to keep still.

22
Some Images
23
And more challenges
  • Food, chapter 16
  • Water, chapter 17
  • Enemies, chapter 17

24
Finally at Sinai
  • 193-6 Then Moses went up to God the Lord
    called to him from the mountain, saying, Thus
    you shall say to the house of Jacob, and tell the
    Israelites You have seen what I did to the
    Egyptians, and how I bore you on eagles wings
    and brought you to myself. Now, therefore, if
    you obey my voice and keep my covenant, you shall
    be my treasured possession out of all the
    peoples. Indeed, the whole earth is mine, but
    you shall be for me a priestly kingdom and a holy
    nation. These are the words you shall speak to
    the Israelites.

25
Covenant
  • Hebrew word is tyrb (berit) which means bond or
    fetter.
  • Modeled on suzerainty-vassal treaty forms from
    the ANE
  • Prologue
  • Stipulations
  • Blessings and Curses
  • It is a matter of choice whether or not you enter
    into such an agreement you are not compelled

26
Moses gets the Law
27
Ten Words (Compare Deuteronomy 5)
  • Ten Words is the form not commandment. The
    expansions came in later
  • Prologue I am the Lord your God who brought you
    up out of the land of Egypt
  • After they heard them, the people were afraid.
    Told Moses You speak to us, and we will
    listen but do not let God speak to us, or we
    will die.

28
The Stipulations
  • No other gods before me
  • No idols
  • No wrongful use of Gods name
  • Remember the sabbath
  • Honor your father and mother
  • Do not murder
  • Do not commit adultery
  • Do not steal
  • Do not bear false witness against your neighbor
  • Do not covert your neighbors house, wife,
    slaves, other belongings

29
10 Commandments Schematic
30
Trouble
  • While Moses is still on the mountain, the people
    want to break the 1st two commandments and get
    Aaron to help (321)
  • God gets mad first, but Moses joins in quickly
    (vv 7-14 and then 15-20)

31
Reiteration of the Law
  • Deuteronomy second law
  • Older material combined with newer and edited
    probably first during Jeremiahs time and then
    again in the post-exilic period
  • Shema umv hear, listen (with the idea of obey
    built in
  • Central text of Israelite and now Jewish
    confession

32
Deuteronomy 64-9
  • Hear, O Israel The Lord is our God, the Lord
    alone. You shall love the Lord your God with all
    your heart, and with all your soul, and with all
    your strength. Keep these words that I am
    commanding you today in your heart. Recite them
    to your children and talk about them when you are
    at home and when you are away, when you lie down
    and when you rise. Bind them as a sign on your
    hand, fix them as an emblem on your forehead, and
    write them on the doorposts of your house.

33
Some Thoughts
  • The initial focus is on God who God is to the
    people who confess and pray. The focus is on the
    ultimate power of that God
  • Contemplating the nature of God is required when
    speaking here
  • Jewish law requires a greater measure of
    concentration on the first verse of the Shema
    than on the rest of the prayer. People commonly
    close their eyes or cover them with the palm of
    their hand while reciting it to eliminate every
    distraction and help them concentrate on the
    meaning of the words. The final word, echad,
    should be prolonged and emphasized. Often, the
    last letter of the first and last words of the
    Shema verse are written in larger print in the
    siddur. This is because these letters form the
    word "ed," witness, and remind Jews of their duty
    to serve as witnesses to God's sovereignty by
    leading exemplary lives. -- Shira Schoenberg

34
Heart, Soul, Strength
  • Heart seat of the will and the conscience. It
    is not about emotion here, it is about intellect,
    what one determines to do.
  • Soul not the spiritual self, because remember
    the body and the soul are one in Hebrew. It is
    the self, the person, ones being.
  • Strength with all of ones resources physical,
    mental, emotional. You love with everything you
    have.

35
Keeping the Law
  • In ones heart.
  • Not external to the self
  • Deut 1016 Circumcise the foreskin of your
    heart, and do not be stubborn any longer
  • Deut 306 Moreover, the Lord your God will
    circumcise your heart and the heart of your
    descendents, so that you will love the Lord your
    God with all your heart and with all your soul,
    in order that you may live
  • Obligation is to your children
  • You must instruct your children in the
    obligations no outside authority does it for
    you
  • You must do it constantly. Home is the center,
    but your obligation does not cease when you are
    away. And it is an enterprise done night and day.

36
Bind them as a sign on your hand
  • Tefillin shel yad
  • Small boxes (battim) with portions of the Torah
    -- handwritten and in a special script -- are
    affixed to the arm and then tied to the hand. It
    is done for morning prayer and then removed.
    Boxes and straps are leather.

37
Fix them as an emblem on your forehead
  • Tefillin shel rosh
  • Also leather box containing part of the torah
    handwritten and then strapped on

38
Tefillin
39
Write them on the doorposts of your house and on
your gates
  • Box contains portion of the torah handwritten
  • You put it on the doorpost of the home
  • Kiss your fingers and touch it when you go in
  • Typical to have a v on the front

40
Mezzuzah (Mezuzah)
41
Message
  • There is no split between secular and sacred
  • The obligations of the law (there are 613 mitzvot
    or commandments) are constant
  • Every aspect of your life is lived in response to
    God
  • Deut 3011-14 (v 14 No, the word is very near
    to you it is in your mouth and in your heart for
    you to observe)

42
Why Israel is obligated
  • Deut 265-9 A wandering Aramean was my ancestor
    he went down into Egypt and lived there as an
    alien, few in number, and there he became a great
    nation, mighty and populous. When the Egyptians
    treated us harshly and afflicted us, by imposing
    hard labor on us, we cried to the Lord, the God
    of our ancestors the Lord heard our voice and
    saw our affliction, our toil, and our oppression.
    The Lord brought us out of Egypt with a mighty
    hand and an outstretched arm, with a terrifying
    display of signs and wonders and he brought us
    into this place and gave us this land, and land
    flowing with milk and honey.
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