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Making sense of cultural and economic change: Qualitative insights from the Three cities programme

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Title: Making sense of cultural and economic change: Qualitative insights from the Three cities programme


1
Making sense of cultural and economic change
Qualitative insights from the Three cities
programme
  • Pete Seaman and Fiona Edgar
  • Glasgow Centre for Population Health

2
Background
  • Glasgows excess mortality is 30 higher than
    Liverpool and Manchester. This is found across
    genders, all (adult) age groups and the social
    spectrum (Walsh, Bendel, Hanlon et al 2013)
  • No one single cause is likely to explain the
    excess. More likely a combination of
    interacting factors
  • The socio-cultural hypothesis that Glasgow
    differs from Liverpool and Manchester in terms of
    its cultural outlook and perspective

3
What is the socio-cultural hypothesis?
  • That Glasgow finds a different expression of the
    following collective traits
  • Psychological outlook Glasgow residents have
    lower aspirations and time preferences than
    those in Liverpool and Manchester
  • Glasgow has a different enactment of family life
  • Glasgow has limited social mobility in comparison
    with the other two cities
  • Social capital is lower in Glasgow than the other
    cities
  • It is social capital that I focus on today but
    bear in mind there is much overlap between the
    categories

4
Methodology
  • 50 Key informant interviews
  • Sampling strategy
  • Nine areas selected to represent
    socio-economically difference (deprived,
    middle and affluent) across the cities
  • 3 types of key informants for each area
  • 1) Mediated professional knowledge
  • 2) Action engagement with problems
  • 3) Lived local activists and residents

5
Fieldwork coverage
In total, 46 interviews (50 participants)
- Area specific 44 interviews (47
participants)
- Wider context 2 interviews (3
participants)
Deprived Middle Non deprived Total Interviews (participants)
Glasgow Interviews G1 6 G2 6 G3 6 18 (18)
Liverpool Interviews L1 4 L2 4 L3 3 11 (12)
Manchester Interviews M1 5 M2 5 M3 5 15 (17)
Total interviews (participants) 15 (15) 15 (17) 14 (15) 44 (47)
6
Findings responding to change in the nine
communities
  • Three dimensions of change
  • Economic dimensions
  • Political/welfare dimensions
  • Shifting understandings and enactments of
    community as a lived concept
  • Changing importance of place

7
Types of social capital
  • Bonding capital links with similar people, with
    similar outlooks and values. Good for personal
    support
  • Bridging capital links with people with
    different outlooks and values. Good for taking
    advantage of new opportunities
  • Linking capital Links made with people in power,
    influence and structures that make decisions that
    affect your life and community

8
Community transitions in relation to social
capital Deprived neighbourhoods
Area Bonding Bridging Linking
Glasgow deprived Families standing alone Atomised experiences Poor connections to geographically distant employment opportunities Reduced Once fought for everything it got. Now alienation from politics and decision-makers
Manchester deprived Tight, hyperlocal networks Poor connections to geographically close employment opportunities Cultural distance between service providers and users
Liverpool deprived Strong sense of local social solidarity (city-level) Concerns about growing transience (private landlords and difficulty integrating newcomers) Reluctant cultural distance between service providers and clients. Mistrust of mainstream politics- preference for local action
9
  • Families standing alone
  • Points to decline in trust and collective values
  • There is a strong sense of family life but
    whether it is right sense or a wrong sense who
    knows. I mean parents will stick up for their
    kids no matter what they do. They wont look at
    the other side, theres some families thatll not
    look at the other side and just weigh in and
    stick up for their kids no matter what
  • Glasgow 1,Lived 3

10
Community transitions in relation to social
capital
Area Bonding Bridging Linking
Glasgow deprived Families standing alone Atomised experiences Poor connections to geographically distant employment opportunities Reduced Once fought for everything it got. Now alienation from politics and decision-makers
Manchester deprived Tight, hyperlocal networks Poor connections to geographically close employment opportunities Cultural distance between service providers and users
Liverpool deprived Strong sense of local social solidarity (city-level) Concerns about growing transience (private landlords and difficulty integrating newcomers) Reluctant cultural distance between service providers and clients. Mistrust of mainstream politics- preference for local action
11
Example Manchester deprived, disconnection from
opportunity and mainstream values
  • Opportunity on doorstep but respondents operate
    discourse of cultural deficits locally.
  • Weve got to keep making sure the economic
    growth is there. But getting local people to pick
    up that opportunity, thats the real objective
  • Action 3
  • So its about trying to change things and make
    people feel more aspirational
  • Mediated 1

12
Community transitions in relation to social
capital
Area Bonding Bridging Linking
Glasgow deprived Families standing alone Atomised experiences Poor connections to geographically distant employment opportunities Reduced Once fought for everything it got. Now alienation from politics and decision-makers
Manchester deprived Tight, hyperlocal networks Poor connections to geographically close employment opportunities Cultural distance between service providers and users
Liverpool deprived Strong sense of local social solidarity (city-level) Concerns about growing transience (private landlords and difficulty integrating newcomers) Mistrust of mainstream politics- preference for local action
13
Example Liverpool, city level solidarity highly
valued
  • I think what really comes across in the culture
    here is local people supporting local people. No
    one likes to see anyone down on their knees.

14
Community transitions in relation to social
capital
Area Bonding Bridging Linking
Glasgow affluent Small local networks established around child-rearing or professional identities High degree of boundary maintenance with local areas Investment in children's futures over collective improvement
Manchester affluent Highly mobile population. Concerns about isolation of elders Transient but skilled population Lifestyle and identity driven projects Transient but skilled population Lifestyle and identity driven projects
Liverpool affluent Two parents out at work means bonding links tend to be within families Community activity thought more likely during retirement City level solidarity Concerns about diminishing returns on higher education
15
  • Liquid community
  • Well, theyll have some close friends, but some
    will be wider. They might have a friend at the
    other side of the world, because you get people
    whove had to travel for their work. Theres a
    lot more people who do contract work and they
    might be out somewhere like Dubai, somewhere like
    that if opportunities arise, Ive seen some
    people go to Africa to do work. Their job means
    theyre jet setting all over the place
  • Glasgow (but could also be Manchester)

16
Community transitions in relation to social
capital
Area Bonding Bridging Linking
Glasgow affluent Small local networks established around child-rearing or professional identities High degree of boundary maintenance with local areas Investment in children's futures over collective improvement
Manchester affluent Highly mobile population. Concerns about isolation of elders Transient but skilled population Lifestyle and identity driven projects Transient but skilled population Lifestyle and identity driven projects
Liverpool affluent Two parents out at work means bonding links tend to be within families Community activity thought more likely during retirement City level solidarity Concerns about diminishing returns on higher education
17
What it means?
  • Community means different things in different
    contexts
  • Some communities remain strongly wedded to
    notions of geographical community
  • Economic life, in contrast, is more mobile.
  • Embedded and disembedded communities have
    different strengths and weakness

18
What does this add to understanding Glasgows
excess mortality?
  • The three cities are not as similar as they
    seem on statistical indicators
  • Manchester more advanced adaptation to liquid
    modern idea of community and this highlights a
    different economic trajectory
  • Liverpool city level commitment to social
    solidarity may be protective. Shows how
    collectivism can be re-imagined after decline of
    class-based politics
  • Glasgow sits between with a liquid affluent
    experience and a solid deprived one. Therefore,
    advantage does not flow from affluent area to
    others
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