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Phenomenological Research 1


Title: Phenomenological Research 1 Author: Bayu Last modified by: Bayu Created Date: 3/13/2012 5:23:44 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Phenomenological Research 1

Phenomenological Research 1
  • Group A
  • Bilal Kilic (11M8052)
  • Nelia Eusoff (11M8187)
  • Siti Norbayu Hj Abd Samad (11M8118)
  • Nor Asnawati Hj Mohd Yassin (11M8117)
  • Hjh. Azrina Hj. Yusof (11M8120)

(No Transcript)
Our Presentation Outline
  • Phenomenological Research
  • Types of Phenomenology
  • Research Discussion
  • Conclusion

What is Phenomenological Research?
  • Definition
  • answers the questions, What is it like to have a
    certain experience?
  • Purposes
  • seeks to understand the phenomenon of a lived
    experience related to an emotion, a relationship
    or being part of an organization or group

Phenomenological Methodology
  • Interview
  • - In depth interview
  • Participant observation
  • Conversation
  • Action Research
  • Focus Meeting
  • Analysis of Personal Texts
  • - Diary Writing

Types of Phenomenology
  • Transcendental
  • focus on essential meaning of individual
  • Existential
  • the social construction of group reality where
    nature and perception of reality (ontology) form
    epistemologies (how we know what we want to know)
  • Hermeneutic
  • structure and interpretation of texts which
    focuses on language and communication

  • Help to give a better understanding of real life
    situation and experiences
  • Good at surfacing deep issues and making voices
  • Has the ability to query and probe in-depth issue
    of a phenomenon

  • Huge compilations of data time consuming.
  • Sample size it can be hard to get over to
    people that a single-figure sample is valid.
  • Difficulty in gaining access to participants for
    more than a single session of an hour or less.

Research Title
  • Research 1
  • Pathways to Building Leadership Capacity by
    Lorraine Slater

Research 2 Developing leadership exploring
childhoods of women university presidents by
Susan R. Madsen
Research 3 Work-shadowing as a process for
facilitating leadership succession in primary
school by Tim Simkins, Paul Close and Robin
Research 4 No sleeping partners relationship
between head teachers and critical friends by
Sue Swaffield
Research 5 Students perspectives of workplace
learning and training in vocational education
written by Christine Velde and Tom Cooper
What is the phenomenon?
  • Research 1
  • The knowledge and experience of stakeholders
    about collaboration.

Research 2 The childhood experiences,
characteristics and memories of women university
presidents as they relate directly or indirectly
to possible leadership development influence.
Research 3 Work-shadowing experiences and
emotion of head teachers contribute to the
leadership development.
Research 4 Insight into nature and challenges
of the relationship between head teachers and
other professional who play the role of their
critical friends.
Research 5 The existence of gaps in the
perceptions of vocational education between
teachers and students.
The purpose
  • Research 1
  • To describe how principals used communication
    strategies and skills to foster the empowerment
    of other stakeholders within the context of
    collaborative initiatives.

Research 2 To investigate the perception and
experiences of women in higher educational
leadership in relation to the development of
their leadership skills, abilities and
competencies throughout their lives.
Research 3 To place work shadowing in the
broader context of responses to the challenges of
managing leadership succession and to consider
some of the keys issues that work shadowing
Research 4 To examine external support for
school leaders and focuses on the relationship
between head teachers and other professionals who
play the role of their critical friends.
Research 5 To investigate competencies learning
outcomes and training acquired during the
  • Research 1
  • Focus group interview
  • Research 2
  • In-depth interview (one to one basis)
  • Research 3
  • In-depth interview
  • Research 4
  • In-depth interview
  • Research 5
  • Individual and focus group interviews
  • Observation at school and workplaces

  • Research 1
  • 16 individuals comprises parents, principals,
    assistant/vice principal and teachers that came
    from 14 different elementary school.

Research 2 10 participants were selected from
the 12 out of 25 women university presidents who
accepted the researchers invitation to
participate in this study. They were from
different populations and levels of leadership.
Research 3 It consists nine of the 20
participating teachers who shadowed heads and
five of the head teachers who were shadowed
selected from
Research 4 5 head teachers, 3 LEA Advisers and
2 line managers of the critical friends who
were referred to as Senior Advisers.
Research 5 30 students, 12 vocational
educators, three administrators working with
vocational programme and 15 employers from site.
Data Collection
  • Research 1
  • Focus group interviews. The interview including
    16 individuals representing a broad range of
    stakeholder roles in the school such as parents,
    principals, assistant/ vice principals and
    teachers. They were selected from 14 different
    elementary schools. The interview was the first
    methods to get primary data sources. The study
    included a total of eight focus group interviews
    that involved 16 hours of taped interviews and
    approximately 500 pages of professionally
    transcribed dialogue.
  • After the interview, they searched researcher
    field notes of the interview which are called
    artifacts. Sometimes researcher field notes can
    be supportive sources to complete interview data.
    During the interview, people may not say
    everything easily or limitations of the character
    may affect the interview section negatively. So
    taking the researcher field notes will be more
    supportive data source to complete your data
    section. After researcher field notes, they did
    correspondence with participants as a
    supplementary data source.

Data Collection
  • Research 2
  • Drafted open-ended probing questions designed to
    extract all types of information about the
    participants experiences and perceptions before
    becoming leaders.
  • Designed some similar follow-up questions to
    encourage the participants to search deeper for
    additional answers and rich descriptions.
  • Managed to make slight adjustment to the
    instrument based on the feedback given by two
    experienced leadership researchers review prior
    to the interviews.
  • Collected interview responses.
  • Transcribing the interview responses
  • Analysed each interview
  • Categorised all responses to identify key ideas
    and phrases about the participants experiences
    related to each category.
  • Assembled all interview phrases or statements by
  • The emerging themes were then noted by the

Data Collection
  • Research 3
  • The researchers did mentioned that the method of
    conducting the research was through in-depth
    interview. The researchers also did not state
    how the data from the interviewed was analyzed
    whether it was transcribed or not. However, the
    researchers did described and discussed in
    details the findings of the interviewed.
  • Research 4
  • Data was collected from the five teachers, three
    LEA advisers and the two line managers.
  • Sample was also selected through a process of
  • Data were gathered through semi-structured
    interviews and questionnaires.
  • Interviews were conducted in the interviewees
    workplaces each lasting between 45 minutes and
    one hour, and all were audio-taped and
  • Data gathered through interview were supplemented
    by a short questionnaire which provided a more
    standardized way of considering some of the
    issues as well as a means of cross-checking
    comments made in the interview.

Data Collection
Research 5 The audio tapes were transcribed and
the responses entered in the computer, using an
appropriate word processing package. These means
that it was typed back to the Word program.
Common themes were then refined and constructed
into categories. Where possible, results were
coalesced across questions. The responses are
summarised under the survey section.
The Procedural Rigor
  • Research 1
  • The journal did not state any procedures.

Research 2 The researcher requested the
participants to review the emerging themes and
results to provide corrections, additional
perspective and insight that may not have been
captured in the original interviews.
Research 3 The researchers did not state any
procedures on how the interviews was carried out.
No consent from the sample participants was
mentioned too.
Research 4 The researcher did not mention any
activity in fact once the data collected from
the interviews were transcribed, she come up
with some conclusions relating them to other
The Procedural Rigor
  • Research 5
  • Throughout the research the instruments for the
    component of the study reported in the paper was
    semi structured interview guide designed for the
  • Questions were asked about the students
    participation in the colleges vocational
    education programme including their reasons,
    their preferred future employment and the
    advantages the scheme gave them, their feelings
    about learning arrangements at school and at
    workplace and their perceptions of the programme.
  • Similar surveys were asked to employers and
    teachers in order to facilitate comparison of the
    results. Prior to this a pilot survey were sent
  • There were no specific time mentioned on how data
    was gathered nor was there any reason describing
    as to why the researcher took or withdrawn the
    students from class to be interviewed in a
    meeting room instead. 

  • Research 1
  • Principals employ various communication skills
    and strategies to build trusting relationship
    that promote leadership opportunities and build
    capacity in others.

Research 2 The findings from the study were
divided into four major themes. It was which
found that there were similarities in childhood
influences of the participants which demonstrated
evidence of the importance of individual
upbringings and experiences on personal
assumptions, potential aspirations and leadership
Research 3 Effective work shadowing can
addressed the issues that have been highlighted
by the researchers in relation to transition,
capability, and identity whereby the perception
of the head teachers on headship were changed
after the shadowing experiences.
Research 4 The factors such as trust values,
purpose and personal qualities communication
and practical action contributed to effective
relationship and critical friends.
Research 5 Despite the students low
educational background , they cited that programs
are opportunities for hands on experiences for
future employment. In relation to this they
perceived vocational education as benefits of
increasing career and employment options. The
teachers however were concerned that vocational
had low status at college. Factors such as
leadership qualities, self esteem and further
training development were taken into
  • This method may consume our time and drained our
    energies but engagements with this research may
    experience a life time learning to listen and
    understand others experiences.
  • Also remember that in this method approach , a
    researcher chooses to study the ways in which
    people experience a given a phenomenon not to
    study a given phenomenon.

  • The End
  • Thank You