The ECTS, Competences, and the Validation of Acquired Experience - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: The ECTS, Competences, and the Validation of Acquired Experience


1
The ECTS, Competences, and the Validation of
Acquired Experience
  • Paul Rousset and Atken Armenian French University
    in Armenia

2
Key Terms
  • Knowledge
  • Competence
  • Diploma
  • Certification

3
Competences
  • Competences represent a dynamic combination of
    attributes, abilities, and attitudes. Fostering
    these competencies is the object of educational
    programmes. Competences are formed in various
    course units and assessed at different stages.
    They may be divided in subject-area related
    competences (specific to a field of study) and
    generic competences (common to any degree
    course).
  • Source ECTS Users Guide, Directorate General
    for Education and Culture, Brussels, 2005 02 14
    p.45
  • EUROPEAN CREDIT TRANSFER AND ACCUMULATION SYSTEM
    AND THE DIPLOMA SUPPLEMENT
  • http//europa.eu.int/comm/education/programmes/soc
    rates/ects/guide_en.pdf p. 45

4
  • In this presentation, it will be argued that
    competences are acquired in four ways
  • 1. Classic approach (formal academic education)
  • 2. Professional Training
  • 3. Blend of Practical Professional and Academic
    education (e.g. sandwich courses that alternate
    academic training and professional experience)
  • 4. Acquired experiences in a life-long process.

5
Competence
  • The possession of
  • required skill(s),
  • knowledge,
  • professional capacity

6
Attribute
  • The Quality
  • or Characteristic
  • of a person

7
Ability
  • The power or capacity to do or act.
  • It is a competence based on
  • natural skill,
  • training,
  • experience,
  • or any other qualification.

8
Attitude
  • Manner
  • Disposition
  • Feeling
  • Orientation
  • Tendency
  • Position, etc.
  • with regard to an educational outcome (skill or
    knowledge).

9
  • Credits in ECTS can only be obtained after
    successful completion of the (academic or
    professional) work required and appropriate
    assessment of the learning outcomes and
    competences achieved.

10
  • Learning outcomes are sets of competences
    expressing what the student will
  • know
  • understand
  • or
  • be able to do
  • after completion of a process of learning, long
    or short.
  • EUROPEAN CREDIT TRANSFER AND ACCUMULATION SYSTEM
    AND THE DIPLOMA SUPPLEMENT
    http//europa.eu.int/comm/education/programmes/soc
    rates/ects/guide_en.pdf p. 4

11
  • An example of a subject specific competence in
    the field of History
  • At the end of the course unit/module the learner
    is expected to demonstrate his/her ability to
    comment and annotate texts and documents
    correctly according to the critical canons of the
    discipline.
  • EUROPEAN CREDIT TRANSFER AND ACCUMULATION SYSTEM
    AND THE DIPLOMA SUPPLEMENT
    http//europa.eu.int/comm/education/programmes/soc
    rates/ects/guide_en.pdf p. 13

12
  • An example of a subject specific competence in
    the field of Physics
  • At the end of the course unit/module the learner
    is expected to be able to describe and explain
    the function of the basic devices of
    optoelectronics optical fibres liquid crystal
    displays bi-polar and surface field effect
    transistors and MOS light emitting diodes.
  • EUROPEAN CREDIT TRANSFER AND ACCUMULATION SYSTEM
    AND THE DIPLOMA SUPPLEMENT
    http//europa.eu.int/comm/education/programmes/soc
    rates/ects/guide_en.pdf p. 13

13
  • An example of a generic competence
  • At the end of the course unit/module the learner
    is expected to be able to demonstrate the use of
    information-retrieval skills effectively, in
    relation to primary and secondary information
    sources, including information retrieval through
    on-line computer searches.
  • EUROPEAN CREDIT TRANSFER AND ACCUMULATION SYSTEM
    AND THE DIPLOMA SUPPLEMENT
    http//europa.eu.int/comm/education/programmes/soc
    rates/ects/guide_en.pdf p. 13

14
  • LANGUAGE COMPETENCES
  • LEVEL C2
  • Can exploit a comprehensive and reliable mastery
    of a very wide range of language to formulate
    thoughts precisely, give emphasis, differentiate
    and eliminate ambiguity . . .
  • No signs of having to restrict what he/she wants
    to say.
  • LEVEL C1
  • Can select an appropriate formulation from a
    broad range of language to express him/herself
    clearly, without having to restrict what he/she
    wants to say.
  • Source The Common European Framework in its
    political and educational context p 110

15
  • LANGUAGE COMPETENCES
  • LEVEL B2
  • Can express him/herself clearly and without much
    sign of having to restrict what he/she wants to
    say.
  • Has a sufficient range of language to be able to
    give clear descriptions, express viewpoints and
    develop arguments without much conspicuous
    searching for words, using some complex sentence
    forms to do so.
  • LEVEL B1
  • Has a sufficient range of language to describe
    unpredictable situations, explain the main points
    in an idea or problem with reasonable precision
    and express thoughts on abstract or cultural
    topics such as music and films.
  • Has enough language to get by, with sufficient
    vocabulary to express him/herself with some
    hesitation and circumlocutions on topics such as
    family, hobbies and interests, work, travel, and
    current events, but lexical limitations cause
    repetition and even difficulty with formulation
    at times.
  • Source The Common European Framework in its
    political and educational context. p 110

16
LANGUAGE COMPETENCES
  • LEVEL A2
  • Has a repertoire of basic language which enables
    him/her to deal with everyday situations with
    predictable content, though he/she will generally
    have to compromise the message and search for
    words.
  • Can produce brief everyday expressions in order
    to satisfy simple needs of a concrete type
    personal details, daily routines, wants and
    needs, requests for information.
  • Can use basic sentence patterns and communicate
    with memorised phrases, groups of a few words and
    formulae about themselves and other people, what
    they do, places, possessions etc.
  • Has a limited repertoire of short memorised
    phrases covering predictable survival situations
    frequent breakdowns and misunderstandings occur
    in non-routine situations.
  • LEVEL A1
  • Has a very basic range of simple expressions
    about personal details and needs of a concrete
    type.
  • Source The Common European Framework in its
    political and educational context. p 110

17
  • Not all learners are full time students enrolled
    in regular degree programmes. A growing number of
    adult learners follow stand-alone courses or
    modules, which may or may not be linked to formal
    qualifications, such as courses for Continuous
    Professional Development.

18
  • Masses of people possess valuable skills and
    competences acquired outside higher education
    institutions, through self study, work or life
    experience.
  • There is no reason why non-traditional learners
    should not benefit from the transparency and
    recognition provided by ECTS.
  • How can such diverse learning be expressed in
    credits and be considered towards a formal
    qualification (if so wished)?
  • EUROPEAN CREDIT TRANSFER AND ACCUMULATION SYSTEM
    AND THE DIPLOMA SUPPLEMENT
    http//europa.eu.int/comm/education/programmes/soc
    rates/ects/guide_en.pdf p. 17

19
  • Validation in formal education and training
    settings
  • Validation in the labor market (enterprises,
    eceonomc sectors, public organizations)
  • Validation of voluntary and civil society
    activities (youth organizations, community
    learning)
  • Aim may be to re-integrate individuals into
    education and training settings, the labor market
    and society at large.
  • Source Common European Principles for Validation
    of Non-formal and Informal learning EAEA News
    2004 04 02

20
  • Certification
  • The process of formally validating knowledge,
    know-how and/or competences acquired by an
    individual following a standard assessment
    procedure. Certificates or diplomas are issues by
    accredited awarding bodies. Certification
    validates the outcome(s) of either formal
    learning (training actions) or informal/non-formal
    learning.

21
  • Formal Learning
  • Learning that occurs in an organised and
    structured context. It is intentional from the
    learners point of view.

22
  • Informal Learning
  • Learning from work-related, family, or leisure
    activities. It is neither organized nor
    structured and is unintentional from the
    learners point of view.

23
  • Non-formal Learning
  • Learning which is embedded in planned activities
    not explicitly designated as learning (in terms
    of learning objectives, learning time or learning
    support) but with an important learning element.
  • Learning is intentional from the learners point
    of view.

24
  • Principles of Validation 1
  • Purpose of Validation
  • Make visible and give value to qualifications and
    competences - irrespective of where these have
    been acquired.
  • May be formative or summative.

25
  • Principles of Validation 2
  • Individual Entitlements
  • Must serve the needs of individual citizens.
  • Transparent
  • Fair
  • Private
  • Based on social dialogue
  • With right of appeal
  • It is the property of the individual

26
  • Principles of Validation 3
  • Responsibilities of Institutions and Stakeholders
  • Must provide guidance and support
  • Provision of information, guidance and
    counselling
  • Provide legal and practical basis
  • Should recognise non-formal acquisitions of
    competences

27
  • Principles of Validation 4
  • Confidence and Trust
  • Transparency of Procedures and Criteria
  • Well-defined standards and procedures
  • Clear and Accessible information on conditions
    and methodologies used
  • Clearly articulated requirements to ensure high
    reliability
  • Accessible information regarding standards

28
  • Principles of Validation 5
  • Impartiality
  • Confidence and trust
  • Code of conduct and professional competence of
    assessors their roles and responsibilities.

29
  • Principles of Validation 6
  • Credibility and Legitimacy
  • All inclusive process of all stakeholders
  • No single predominating influence
  • Safeguard impartiality and full participation of
    all parties.

30
  • THANK YOU
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The ECTS, Competences, and the Validation of Acquired Experience

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Title: The ECTS, Competences, and the Validation of Acquired Experience


1
The ECTS, Competences, and the Validation of
Acquired Experience
  • Paul Rousset and Atken Armenian French University
    in Armenia

2
Key Terms
  • Knowledge
  • Competence
  • Diploma
  • Certification

3
Competences
  • Competences represent a dynamic combination of
    attributes, abilities, and attitudes. Fostering
    these competencies is the object of educational
    programmes. Competences are formed in various
    course units and assessed at different stages.
    They may be divided in subject-area related
    competences (specific to a field of study) and
    generic competences (common to any degree
    course).
  • Source ECTS Users Guide, Directorate General
    for Education and Culture, Brussels, 2005 02 14
    p.45
  • EUROPEAN CREDIT TRANSFER AND ACCUMULATION SYSTEM
    AND THE DIPLOMA SUPPLEMENT
  • http//europa.eu.int/comm/education/programmes/soc
    rates/ects/guide_en.pdf p. 45

4
  • In this presentation, it will be argued that
    competences are acquired in four ways
  • 1. Classic approach (formal academic education)
  • 2. Professional Training
  • 3. Blend of Practical Professional and Academic
    education (e.g. sandwich courses that alternate
    academic training and professional experience)
  • 4. Acquired experiences in a life-long process.

5
Competence
  • The possession of
  • required skill(s),
  • knowledge,
  • professional capacity

6
Attribute
  • The Quality
  • or Characteristic
  • of a person

7
Ability
  • The power or capacity to do or act.
  • It is a competence based on
  • natural skill,
  • training,
  • experience,
  • or any other qualification.

8
Attitude
  • Manner
  • Disposition
  • Feeling
  • Orientation
  • Tendency
  • Position, etc.
  • with regard to an educational outcome (skill or
    knowledge).

9
  • Credits in ECTS can only be obtained after
    successful completion of the (academic or
    professional) work required and appropriate
    assessment of the learning outcomes and
    competences achieved.

10
  • Learning outcomes are sets of competences
    expressing what the student will
  • know
  • understand
  • or
  • be able to do
  • after completion of a process of learning, long
    or short.
  • EUROPEAN CREDIT TRANSFER AND ACCUMULATION SYSTEM
    AND THE DIPLOMA SUPPLEMENT
    http//europa.eu.int/comm/education/programmes/soc
    rates/ects/guide_en.pdf p. 4

11
  • An example of a subject specific competence in
    the field of History
  • At the end of the course unit/module the learner
    is expected to demonstrate his/her ability to
    comment and annotate texts and documents
    correctly according to the critical canons of the
    discipline.
  • EUROPEAN CREDIT TRANSFER AND ACCUMULATION SYSTEM
    AND THE DIPLOMA SUPPLEMENT
    http//europa.eu.int/comm/education/programmes/soc
    rates/ects/guide_en.pdf p. 13

12
  • An example of a subject specific competence in
    the field of Physics
  • At the end of the course unit/module the learner
    is expected to be able to describe and explain
    the function of the basic devices of
    optoelectronics optical fibres liquid crystal
    displays bi-polar and surface field effect
    transistors and MOS light emitting diodes.
  • EUROPEAN CREDIT TRANSFER AND ACCUMULATION SYSTEM
    AND THE DIPLOMA SUPPLEMENT
    http//europa.eu.int/comm/education/programmes/soc
    rates/ects/guide_en.pdf p. 13

13
  • An example of a generic competence
  • At the end of the course unit/module the learner
    is expected to be able to demonstrate the use of
    information-retrieval skills effectively, in
    relation to primary and secondary information
    sources, including information retrieval through
    on-line computer searches.
  • EUROPEAN CREDIT TRANSFER AND ACCUMULATION SYSTEM
    AND THE DIPLOMA SUPPLEMENT
    http//europa.eu.int/comm/education/programmes/soc
    rates/ects/guide_en.pdf p. 13

14
  • LANGUAGE COMPETENCES
  • LEVEL C2
  • Can exploit a comprehensive and reliable mastery
    of a very wide range of language to formulate
    thoughts precisely, give emphasis, differentiate
    and eliminate ambiguity . . .
  • No signs of having to restrict what he/she wants
    to say.
  • LEVEL C1
  • Can select an appropriate formulation from a
    broad range of language to express him/herself
    clearly, without having to restrict what he/she
    wants to say.
  • Source The Common European Framework in its
    political and educational context p 110

15
  • LANGUAGE COMPETENCES
  • LEVEL B2
  • Can express him/herself clearly and without much
    sign of having to restrict what he/she wants to
    say.
  • Has a sufficient range of language to be able to
    give clear descriptions, express viewpoints and
    develop arguments without much conspicuous
    searching for words, using some complex sentence
    forms to do so.
  • LEVEL B1
  • Has a sufficient range of language to describe
    unpredictable situations, explain the main points
    in an idea or problem with reasonable precision
    and express thoughts on abstract or cultural
    topics such as music and films.
  • Has enough language to get by, with sufficient
    vocabulary to express him/herself with some
    hesitation and circumlocutions on topics such as
    family, hobbies and interests, work, travel, and
    current events, but lexical limitations cause
    repetition and even difficulty with formulation
    at times.
  • Source The Common European Framework in its
    political and educational context. p 110

16
LANGUAGE COMPETENCES
  • LEVEL A2
  • Has a repertoire of basic language which enables
    him/her to deal with everyday situations with
    predictable content, though he/she will generally
    have to compromise the message and search for
    words.
  • Can produce brief everyday expressions in order
    to satisfy simple needs of a concrete type
    personal details, daily routines, wants and
    needs, requests for information.
  • Can use basic sentence patterns and communicate
    with memorised phrases, groups of a few words and
    formulae about themselves and other people, what
    they do, places, possessions etc.
  • Has a limited repertoire of short memorised
    phrases covering predictable survival situations
    frequent breakdowns and misunderstandings occur
    in non-routine situations.
  • LEVEL A1
  • Has a very basic range of simple expressions
    about personal details and needs of a concrete
    type.
  • Source The Common European Framework in its
    political and educational context. p 110

17
  • Not all learners are full time students enrolled
    in regular degree programmes. A growing number of
    adult learners follow stand-alone courses or
    modules, which may or may not be linked to formal
    qualifications, such as courses for Continuous
    Professional Development.

18
  • Masses of people possess valuable skills and
    competences acquired outside higher education
    institutions, through self study, work or life
    experience.
  • There is no reason why non-traditional learners
    should not benefit from the transparency and
    recognition provided by ECTS.
  • How can such diverse learning be expressed in
    credits and be considered towards a formal
    qualification (if so wished)?
  • EUROPEAN CREDIT TRANSFER AND ACCUMULATION SYSTEM
    AND THE DIPLOMA SUPPLEMENT
    http//europa.eu.int/comm/education/programmes/soc
    rates/ects/guide_en.pdf p. 17

19
  • Validation in formal education and training
    settings
  • Validation in the labor market (enterprises,
    eceonomc sectors, public organizations)
  • Validation of voluntary and civil society
    activities (youth organizations, community
    learning)
  • Aim may be to re-integrate individuals into
    education and training settings, the labor market
    and society at large.
  • Source Common European Principles for Validation
    of Non-formal and Informal learning EAEA News
    2004 04 02

20
  • Certification
  • The process of formally validating knowledge,
    know-how and/or competences acquired by an
    individual following a standard assessment
    procedure. Certificates or diplomas are issues by
    accredited awarding bodies. Certification
    validates the outcome(s) of either formal
    learning (training actions) or informal/non-formal
    learning.

21
  • Formal Learning
  • Learning that occurs in an organised and
    structured context. It is intentional from the
    learners point of view.

22
  • Informal Learning
  • Learning from work-related, family, or leisure
    activities. It is neither organized nor
    structured and is unintentional from the
    learners point of view.

23
  • Non-formal Learning
  • Learning which is embedded in planned activities
    not explicitly designated as learning (in terms
    of learning objectives, learning time or learning
    support) but with an important learning element.
  • Learning is intentional from the learners point
    of view.

24
  • Principles of Validation 1
  • Purpose of Validation
  • Make visible and give value to qualifications and
    competences - irrespective of where these have
    been acquired.
  • May be formative or summative.

25
  • Principles of Validation 2
  • Individual Entitlements
  • Must serve the needs of individual citizens.
  • Transparent
  • Fair
  • Private
  • Based on social dialogue
  • With right of appeal
  • It is the property of the individual

26
  • Principles of Validation 3
  • Responsibilities of Institutions and Stakeholders
  • Must provide guidance and support
  • Provision of information, guidance and
    counselling
  • Provide legal and practical basis
  • Should recognise non-formal acquisitions of
    competences

27
  • Principles of Validation 4
  • Confidence and Trust
  • Transparency of Procedures and Criteria
  • Well-defined standards and procedures
  • Clear and Accessible information on conditions
    and methodologies used
  • Clearly articulated requirements to ensure high
    reliability
  • Accessible information regarding standards

28
  • Principles of Validation 5
  • Impartiality
  • Confidence and trust
  • Code of conduct and professional competence of
    assessors their roles and responsibilities.

29
  • Principles of Validation 6
  • Credibility and Legitimacy
  • All inclusive process of all stakeholders
  • No single predominating influence
  • Safeguard impartiality and full participation of
    all parties.

30
  • THANK YOU
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