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Title: Article of psychology. Methods. Psychology of sensation and perception. Olena Smashna


1
Article of psychology. Methods. Psychology of
sensation and perception.Olena Smashna
2
Psychology - one of sciences about a person, his
life and activity. The article of it is psychical
activity of person, its psychical processes,
states and properties.
  • General psychology is science, which studies
    essence and general conformities to the law of
    origin, functioning and development of psyche.

3
Wilhelm WundtThe Founder of Psychology
  • By the second half of the 1800s, the stage had
    been set for the emergence of psychology as a
    distinct scientific discipline. The leading
    proponent of this idea was a German physiologist
    named Wilhelm Wundt.
  • Wundt used scientific methods to study
    fundamental psychological processes, such as
    mental reaction times in response to visual or
    auditory stimuli. For example,Wundt tried to
    measure precisely how long it took a person to
    consciously detect the sight and sound of a bell
    being struck.

4
The first psychology research laboratory
  • A major turning point in psychology occurred in
    1874, when Wundt published his landmark text,
    Principles of Physiological Psychology.
  • In this book, Wundt outlined the connections
    between physiology and psychology. He also
    promoted his belief that psychology should be
    established as a separate scientific discipline
    that would use experimental methods to study
    mental processes
  • A few years later, in 1879, Wundt realized that
    goal when he opened the first psychology research
    laboratory at the University of Leipzig. Many
    regard this event as marking the formal beginning
    of psychology as an experimental science

5
The Titcheners approach
  • Titchener eventually departed from Wundts
    position and developed his own ideas on the
    nature of psychology. Titcheners approach,
    called structuralism, became the first major
    school of thought in psychology.
  • Structuralism held that even our most complex
    conscious experiences could be broken down into
    elemental structures, or component parts, of
    sensations and feelings. To identify these
    structures of conscious thought, Titchener
    trained subjects in a procedure called
    introspection. The subjects would view a simple
    stimulus, such as a book, and then try to
    reconstruct their sensations and feelings
    immediately after viewing it. (In psychology, a
    stimulus is anything perceptible to the senses,
    such as a sight, sound, smell, touch or taste.
    They might first report on the colors they saw,
    then the smells, and so on, in the attempt to
    create a total description of their conscious
    experience.
  • Structuralism - early school of psychology
    that emphasized studying the most basic
    components, or structures, of conscious
    experiences.

6
Functionalism
  • The main proponent of American psychology was one
    of Harvards most outstanding teachersWilliam
    James.
  • James had first become intrigued by the emerging
    science of psychology after reading one of
    Wundts articles, entitled Recent Advances in
    the Field of Physiological Psychology, in the
    late 1860s.
  • In the early 1870s, James began teaching a
    physiology and anatomy class at Harvard
    University. An intense, enthusiastic teacher,
    James was prone to changing the subject matter of
    his classes as his own interests changed
  • Gradually, his lectures came to focus more on
    psychology than on physiology. By the late 1870s,
    James was teaching classes devoted exclusively to
    the topic of psychology.
  • Jamess ideas became the basis of another early
    school of psychology, called functionalism, which
    stressed studying the adaptive and practical
    functions of human behavior.

7
Sigmund Freud Psychoanalysis
  • In Vienna, Austria, a physician named Sigmund
    Freud was developing an intriguing theory of
    personality based on uncovering causes of
    behavior that were unconscious, or hidden from
    the persons conscious awareness.
  • Freuds school of psychological thought, called
    psychoanalysis, emphasized the role of
    unconscious conflicts in determining behavior and
    personality. Freuds psychoanalytic theory of
    personality and behavior was based largely on his
    work with his patients and on insights derived
    from self-analysis.
  • Freud believed that human behavior was motivated
    by unconscious conflicts that were almost always
    sexual or aggressive in nature. Past experiences,
    especially childhood experiences, were thought to
    be critical in the formation of adult personality
    and behavior. According to Freud (1904), glimpses
    of these unconscious impulses are revealed in
    everyday life in dreams, memory blocks, slips of
    the tongue, and spontaneous humor. Freud believed
    that when unconscious conflicts became extreme,
    psychological disorders could result.

8
John B. Watson Behaviorism
  • Behaviorism contended that psychology should
    focus its scientific investigations strictly on
    overt behaviorobservable behaviors that could be
    objectively measured and verified. Behaviorism is
    yet another example of the influence of
    physiology on psychology.
  • Ivan Pavlov demonstrated that dogs could learn to
    associate a neutral stimulus, such as the sound
    of a bell, with an automatic behavior, such as
    reflexively salivating to food. Once an
    association between the sound of the bell and the
    food was formed, the sound of the bell alone
    would trigger the salivation reflex in the dog.
    Pavlov enthusiastically believed he had
    discovered the mechanism by which all behaviors
    were learned.
  • In the United States, a young, dynamic
    psychologist named John B. Watson shared Pavlovs
    enthusiasm. Watson (1913) championed behaviorism
    as a new school of psychology. Structuralism was
    still an influential perspective, but Watson
    strongly objected to both its method of
    introspection and its focus on conscious mental
    processes.

9
The famous American psychologist B. F. Skinner
  • Like Watson, Skinner believed that psychology
    should restrict itself to studying outwardly
    observable behaviors that could be measured and
    verified. In compelling experimental
    demonstrations, Skinner systematically used
    reinforcement or punishment to shape the behavior
    of rats and pigeons.
  • Between Watson and Skinner, behaviorism dominated
    American psychology for almost half a century.
    During that time, the study of conscious
    experiences was largely ignored as a topic in
    psychology.

10
Humanistic Psychology
  • Humanistic psychology was largely founded by
    American psychologist Rogers. Like Freud, Rogers
    was influenced by his experiences with
    psychotherapy clients.
  • However, rather than emphasizing unconscious
    conflicts, Rogers emphasized the conscious
    experiences of his patients, including each
    persons unique potential for psychological
    growth and self-direction.
  • In contrast to the behaviorists, who saw human
    behavior as being shaped and maintained by
    external causes, Rogers emphasized
    self-determination, free will, and the importance
    of choice in human behaviour.

11
Abraham Maslow
  • Maslow developed a theory of motivation that
    emphasized psychological growth. Like
    psychoanalysis, humanistic psychology included
    not only influential theories of personality but
    also a form of psychotherapy.
  • Each of the schools that weve described had an
    impact on the topics and methods of psychological
    research.
  • From the founding of Wundts laboratory in 1879,
    psychology has evolved to its current status as a
    dynamic and multidimensional science.
  • The ideas of Carl Rogers have been particularly
    influential in modern psychotherapy.
  • Abraham Maslows theory of motivation emphasized
    the importance of psychological growth.

12
The Scientific Method
  • The four basic goals of psychology are to (1)
    describe, (2) explain, (3) predict, and (4)
    control or influence behavior and mental
    processes.
  • To achieve these goals, psychologists rely on the
    scientific method. The scientific method refers
    to a set of assumptions, attitudes, and
    procedures that guide researchers in creating
    questions to investigate, in generating evidence,
    and in drawing conclusions.
  • Like all scientists, psychologists are guided by
    the basic scientific assumption that events are
    lawful. When this scientific assumption is
    applied to psychology, it means that
    psychologists assume that behavior and mental
    processes follow consistent patterns.
  • Psychologists are also guided by the assumption
    that events are explainable. Thus, psychologists
    assume that behavior and mental processes have a
    cause or causes that can be understood through
    careful, systematic study.

13
The Scientific Method
  • In striving to discover and understand consistent
    patterns of behavior, psychologists are
    open-minded. They are willing to consider new or
    alternative explanations of behavior and mental
    processes.
  • However, their open-minded attitude is tempered
    by a healthy sense of scientific skepticism. That
    is, psychologists critically evaluate the
    evidence for new findings, especially those that
    seem contrary to established knowledge.
  • And, in promoting new ideas and findings,
    psychologists are cautious in the claims they
    make.

14
General psychology studies
  • - structure of psychical activity of man and
    basic conformities to the law of motion of
    psychical processes (feeling and perception,
    memory, attention, thought and intellect,
    emotions and volitional activity, consciousness,
    selfconsciousness, subconscious and irresponsible
    processes).
  • - One of basic tasks of general psychology there
    is a study of personality, its structure and
    basic displays.
  • - In 19-20 age formed great number of separate
    branches of psychological science, what associate
    with other sciences, including and medical
    psychology.

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  • Medical psychology is divided into general and
    special.

16
General medical psychology studies
  • Basic conformities to the law of psychology of
    sick man
  • Psychology of relatives and near patient
  • Psychology of medical workers in relation to each
    other
  • Psychological aspects of intercourse of physician
    are with patients and their relatives
  • Psychological atmosphere in treatment -
    prophilaxy establishments
  • Internal picture of illnesses, psychosomatic and
    somatopsyche mutual relations
  • Influence of personality on motion of disease
  • Psychological aspects of medical deontology
  • Psychological aspects of psychotherapy,
    psychohygiene and psychoprophylaxy.

17
The special medical psychology studies
  • Features of psychology of patients are with the
    boundary forms of nervous - psychiatric disorders
    which actually are the object of activity of
    doctor of any speciality
  • Psychology of patients on the stages of
    preparation, conducting of surgical interferences
    and in a afteroperative period
  • Features of psychology of persons are with
    different diseases (cardio-vascular, infectious,
    oncologic, gynaecological, leather, nerve -
    psychic)
  • Psychology of patients with the defects of
    organs and systems (blindness, deafness,
    deaf-and-dumb and etc.)
  • Medic-psychological aspect of labour, military
    and judicial examinations.

18
Industries of psychology
  • 1). Psychology of labour - studies the
    psychological features of labour activity of man,
    scientific organization of labour.
  • Tasks - research of professional features of man
  • conformities to the law of development of skills
    of labours
  • influence on the man of production situation,
    placing of machine-tools.
  • Psychology of labour has a row of sections
  • engineering psychology is a problem of order and
    concordance of functions between people and
    machine
  • aviation psychology, space psychology.

19
2). Pedagogical psychology study of
psychological conformities to the law of studies
and education of man.
  • Its sections
  • it is psychology of studies (bases of didactics,
    programmable studies, forming of mental actions).
  • psychology of education (psychology of education
    of student's collective).

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3). Medical psychology, psychological aspects of
activity of physicians, patient
  • neuropsychology correlation of the psychological
    phenomena with physiology of cerebral
    structures
  • psychopharmacy
  • psychotherapy facilities of the psychical
    influencing for treatment of a sick
  • psychoprophylaxy and psychohygiene measures for
    providing of psychical health of people.

21
4). Legal psychology is realization of right
  • judicial psychological features of conduct of
    participants of criminal process
  • psychology of testimonies, conduct of accused,
    requirements to the interrogation
  • criminal conduct and formings of personality of
    criminal, reasons of crime
  • community-service psychology.

22
  • 5). Military psychology.
  • 6). Sport psychology.
  • 7). Trade psychology (including influencing of
    advertising).
  • 8). Psychology of scientific creation.
  • 9). Psychology of artistic creation (in
    literature, art) and aesthetically beautiful
    perception.

23
10). If to take the psychological aspects of
development for basis, distinguish
  • age-old psychology (child, psychology of
    teenager, adult, herontopsychology)
  • psychology of anomalous development
  • olygophrenopsychology
  • surdopsychology (defect of ear)
  • typhlopsychology (badseing and blind).

24
11) Comparative psychology is research of
filogenic form of psychical life, comparison of
psyche of animals and mananimal psychology.
  • 12). Social psychology mutual relations of
    people from the different organized and
    unorganized groups of communities
  • makro environments
  • m?kro environments.

25
Methods of psychology
  • In psychology distinguish
  • basic methods supervision and experiment
  • auxiliary method of expert estimations,
    analysis of products of activity, methods of
    questioning (conversation, questionnaire,
    interview
  • method of supervision
  • method of tests etc.

26
1). Supervision
  • Advantages - conducted in a natural ordinary
    situation
  • does not change behavior of persons
  • it is possible to look after one person or group
    of persons
  • very comfortable in the group of preschool or in
    a school class, student group
  • supervision and fixing of single displays of
    psychical properties insufficient for reliable
    conclusions.

27
  • 2). Experiment laboratory and natural.
  • Advantages - it is possible specially to cause
    a certain psychical process
  • it is possible to trace dependence of the
    psychical phenomenon on changeble external
    conditions.
  • 3). Methods of questioning
  • Method of conversation use on the different
    stages of research both for a primary orientation
    and for clarification of conclusions, got with
    the help of other methods (supervision).
  • 4). Method of interview. Questionnaire.
    Difference The method of interview foresees
    greater freedom of polled in forming of answer.
  • 5). Method of expert estimations widely use
    personality psychology. As experts can come
    forward competent persons which know explored
    well educators of preschool, schools-boarding-sch
    ools, leaders of classes, masters on a
    production, leaders of scientific collectives,
    sporting trainers and other

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  • 6). Method of introspection widely used in
    empiric psychology of a 18-19 ages
  • 7). Method of tests tests, that the brief
    studies of properties of personality are more or
    less standardized
  • Are you able to own the emotions?
  • Are you able to influence on other?
  • Are you understood in Cosmetology?
  • Are you able to get dressed? and etc
  • 8). Concrete methods of psychological inspection
    there are very much and depends on a purpose. For
    example, study of age-old changes of attention
    (to firmness), normal and morons children.

29
Experimental method
  • The experimental method is a research method used
    to demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship
    between changes in one variable and the effect
    that is produced on another variable.
  • Conducting an experiment involves
    deliberately varying one factor, which is called
    the independent variable. The researcher then
    measures the changes, if any, that are produced
    in a second factor, called the dependent
    variable. The dependent variable is so named
    because changes in it depend on variations in the
    independent variable.
  • To the greatest degree possible, all other
    conditions in the experiment are held constant.
    Thus, when the data are analyzed, any changes
    that occur in the dependent variable can be
    attributed to the deliberate variations of the
    independent variable. In this way, an experiment
    can demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship
    between the independent and dependent variables.

30
Sensation and perception
  • Sensation is a psychical process of reflection
    in our consciousness of separate properties of
    objects and phenomena of the objective world,
    which arise up at their direct influence on
    sense-organs.

31
Sensation
  • the most elementary stage, which reflects
    separate quality of subject, which is acting in
    right moment to sensory organs.
  • Classification
  • According to modality
  • Interoceptive give signal about condition of
    our inner world warm, cold, hunger,
    uncomfortability. These sensastions dont have
    localisation, outside proection, closely
    connected with emotional processes.
  • Exteroceptive 5 sensation organs smell, taste,
    sight, hearing, tactile.
  • Proprioceptive information about body position,
    movement in space, everything which makes body
    scheme.

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  • 1. Exteroreceptors (external).
  • Distances
  • a) an organ of sight - an eye
  • b) an ear - is external and middle ears and
    frizz
  • c) organ of smell - nose.
  • 2. Contacts
  • a) receptors of touch and pushing
  • b) receptors of heat
  • c) receptors of cold
  • d) receptors of pain.
  • 3. Interoreceprors (visceroreceptors).

34
  • Receptors of the digestive system
  • a) receptors of smell is - nosethroat
  • b) receptors of taste - are a tongue and
    throat
  • c) sensory sells of thirst - mucus of throat
  • d) sensory sells of hunger is - stomach
  • e) sensory sells of nausea is - stomach.
  • Receptors of the system of circulation of blood
  • Receptors of the respiratory system.
  • Receptors of the system of reproduction.
  • Receptors of pain of all internal organs.

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Feeling properties
  • Absolute sensitiveness of sense-organs - to feel
    ability of man insignificant sizes of irritation.
  • A feeling threshold - is a minimum size of
    irritant, which feeling is appear (to the 16-20
    hrz. for ear).
  • Adaptation - is a change of sensitiveness of
    analyzers as a result of adaptation of
    sense-organs to the operating irritant (light,
    warmly).
  • Sensibilisation - is an increase of
    sensitiveness as a result of co-operation (sound
    - light - disco).
  • Habituation - is getting used, when certain
    irritants become so usual, that stop to influence
    on activity of higher departments of brain (a
    townsman does not hear noise of cars, physicians
    - smell of medications

40
Perception is a psychical process which consists
in the integral reflection of objects and
phenomena of outward things under direct
influence of physical irritants on the receptors
of sense-organs (auditory, visual etc).
  • Integrity of perception - is an always integral
    reflection.
  • Selectivity - appears in the grant of advantage
    one objects, to the phenomena or their properties
    before other (the trained nurse pays attention to
    the signs of illness).
  • A constant of perception - is less-more
    relative firmness of separate properties of
    objects regardless of terms of perception (sun
    illumination and electric).
  • The intelligentness of perception - is linked
    with understanding essence of object which is
    perceived.
  • Apperception - is dependence on previous
    experience and its individual features and
    profession.
  • Supervision - the intentional planned
    perception, conditioned by a concrete task, is
    integrally directed.

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  • Perceptions of colors and their influence are
    on the psyche of man
  • Grey - neutral - estrangement from
    surrounding
  • Green - calming - stability self-affirmation
  • Red - excitant - energeticness, unrestrainedness
  • Yellow - stimulant - life-breath
  • Dark blue - calming - rest and passivity
  • Black - repressing - fencing off, promoted
    self-esteem, on occasion testifies
    to depression

44
  • Perception depends on
  • to the state of receptors
  • leading ways
  • cork (brain) end of analyzers
  • to consciousness
  • attention
  • emotions
  • vital experience

45
Violation of sensation-hyperaesthesia-
hypoaesthesia - anaesthesia

46
Sensation
  • Anesthesia absence of 1 or more type of
    sensation. Analgesia loss of pain sensation (
    at acute psychopathological diseases.) Patients,
    who commit suicides they cut their organs at
    such moment they dont feel anything. After some
    time everything comes back with recreation of
    psyche. ( At deep depression, progressive
    paralysis, brain syphillis, convulsive
    disorders(hysteria), anaestesia dolorosa depresia
    absense of sensation).
  • Hyperesthesia subjective increasing of
    sensation. Hyperalgesia increasing of pain
    sensastion (depression,espessially light).

47
  • Violation of perception
  • Illusions error perception or error
    interpretation of the real external irritants
    (physical, physiology, psychical).
  • Hallucinations error perception of
    non-existent sensory stimuli, here can take
    place (but not necessarily) delusional
    interpretation of the hallucinative experience.
    Hallucinations specify in the presence of
    psychosis only in that case, when they are
    connected with violation of real situation.

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  • Illusions are perceptions that are associated
    with an outside stimulus, but the st imulus is
    wrongly interpreted. For example, lapping water
    may be heard as laughter. T echnically, these are
    not hallucinations, as they are associated with a
    stimulus. Illusions are frequently visual, and
    they are usually the result of a medical
    condition. The condition which most commonly
    causes illusions is delirium tremens (DTs), the
    disturbed state which can complicate alcohol
    withdrawal. Objec ts such as creases in bed
    covers may be perceived as snakes, insects or
    other animals. Folk law says that people in DTs
    see pink elephants. In clinical practice,
    however, small organisms are more commonly seen.

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Hallucinations in healthy people
  • Briefly, there are differences between the
    voices heard by healthy individuals and the
    hallucinations of those with mental disorders. In
    healthy individuals, the voice is usually as if
    from one person, speaking comprehensibly, in a
    helpful and comforting manner.
  • Auditory hallucinations in mental disorders, in
    contrast, often involve more than one voice,
    sometimes arguing, sometimes commenting about the
    patient, frequently making little sense, often in
    a threatening and frightening manner.

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PERCEPTION -
  • -

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  • Auditory or heard hallucinations are usually of v
    oices, however non-verbal auditory
    hallucinations do occur, and include clicking and
    mechanical noises, muttering or mumbling and
    music. (In musical hallucinations the patient
    often hears a complete piece of music.)

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  • In the case of verbal auditory hallucinations,
    one or more voices may be heard simultaneously.
  • They may come from inside or outside the head.
    Two or more voices may speak at the same time, or
    they may conduct a conversation between
    themselves .

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  • Voices may instruct or command the patient to pe
    rform an act. Usually this is a trivial act such
    as making a cup of tea, but it may be to injure
    him/herself or others.

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  • Visual hallucinations may occur in a range of
    disorders, and may occur more frequently than
    auditory hallucinations in the organic mental
    disorders. In some types of epilepsy visual
    hallucinations may form complex scenes such as
    two trucks and a rickshaw driving through the
    room.

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  • Tactile hallucinations are the experience of
    being touched or of a crawling sensation under
    the skin. These are common in drug withdrawal
    states, but may occur in schizophrenia.
  • Somatic hallucinations are the sensation of
    things happening inside the body, such as organs
    moving from one part of the body to another.
    These are rare, but may occur in schizophrenia.
  • Gustatory hallucinations, the hallucinations of
    taste and smell , are more common in medical
    conditions, particularly epilepsy, but may rarely
    occur in schizophrenia.

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PERCEPTION -
  • S-m Lippman, s-m Ashaphenburg, s-m Reyhardt.

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PERCEPTION -
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PERCEPTION -
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ANOREXIA NERVOSA (AN)
67
ANOREXIA NERVOSA (AN)
  • DSM-IV Diagnostic criteria
  • A. Refusal to maintain body weight at or above a
    minimally normal weight for age and height (e.g.,
    weight loss leading to maintenance of a body
    weight less than 85 of that expected)
  • B. Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming
    fat, even though underweight.
  • C. Disturbance in the way in which ones body
    weight or shape is experienced, undue influence
    of body weight or shape on self -evaluation, or
    denial of the seriousness of the current low body
    weight.
  • D. In postmenarche females, amenorrhea (the
    absence of at least three consecutive menstrual
    cycles).

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ANOREXIA NERVOSA (AN)
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Practical advices
  • 1.In asthenic patients the thresholds of
    feelings are reduced. That is why it is necessary
    to create all proper terms in relation to warning
    of action of superstrong for a sick man irritants
    (noise, vowel language, strong smells, protracted
    visits of visitors and others like that).
  • 2. At the care of patients it is needed to take
    into account the processes of adaptation,
    habituation and sensibilisation. SO, the process
    of adaptation to the stationary terms lasts
    mainly three-four days. Habituation lasted more
    characteristic for patients from rural locality,
    and sensibilisation - for the habitants of city.
  • 3. At the care of patients and socializing with
    them it is necessary to take into account the
    sensitiveness of analyzers more loud to speak to
    the persons with the reduced ear, to heed after
    operating of hot-water bottle on areas bodies,
    staggered paralyses or paresises, to darken a
    chamber, where patients which pupils were
    medicinal extended and others like that are.
  • 4. It is needed to take into account influence
    of colors on the state of psyche of patient
    green and blue - calm patients, and the red and
    orange excite the nervous system.
  • 5. Illness strengthens selectivity of perception.

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  • Thank you for your attention!
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