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The Inner Planets

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Inner Planets The 4 inner planets are small and have rocky surfaces They are known as the terrestrial planets The are more similar to each other than ... life evolved ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Inner Planets


1
The Inner Planets
  • Astronomy 1

2
Weekly Quiz
  • In place of a quiz this week, you must be able to
    identify each inner planet and give several facts
    for each.
  • So pay attention!!!!

3
  • Inner Planets
  • The 4 inner planets are small and have rocky
    surfaces
  • They are known as the terrestrial planets
  • The are more similar to each other than they are
    to the outer planets
  • They all have a core, mantel and crust

4
Earth
  • 3rd planet from the sun
  • Has an atmosphere about 100km above the Earths
    surface that has about 20 oxygen and about 78
    nitrogen
  • The atmosphere and temperature range is suitable
    for water to exist as a liquid
  • Approximately 70 is covered with water

5
Earth
  • Has enough gravity to hold most of the gas
    molecules (atmosphere)
  • Geologically active because the internal heat
    allows for plate tectonics

6
Mercury
  • Closest planet to the sun
  • Very small (not much larger than our moon)
  • Has no moons of its own
  • Geologically dead
  • Has an iron core
  • Very little is known about Mercury because it is
    so close to the sun
  • Mariner 10 was a space probe that flew by in 1974
    -1975, but only got a few pictures

7
Mercury
  • Very little atmosphere because the sun heated the
    gas particles and they escaped into space
  • Very extreme temperatures sun side reaches
    430C and at night falls to -170C (has the
    greatest temp range of all the planets)
  • Takes 88 days to complete one revolution

8
Venus
  • 2nd planet from the sun
  • Venus can often times be seen easily on Earth
    it appears to be a star, but is not because it is
    reflecting light from the sun
  • It is the evening star because it can be seen in
    the west at sunset and the morning star because
    it can be seen in the east at sunrise
  • It is known as the Earths twin because it is
    similar is size and composition however, it is
    very different in other aspects

9
Venus
  • Takes about 7.5 Earth months to revolve around
    the sun and about 8 months to rotate in its axis
  • So that means that a day on Venus is longer that
    a year on Venus!
  • It rotates opposite of other planets and moons in
    the solar system
  • It rotates from east to west
  • This is called retrograde rotation

10
Venus
  • Has a very thick atmosphere so thick that there
    is never a sunny day on Venus
  • This causes the pressure to be 90 times greater
    than on Earth (it would crush you like a can!)
  • The clouds are partly sulfuric acid
  • Has volcanoes, but no other evidence of plate
    tectonics

11
Venus
  • Also because of the thick atmosphere the
    greenhouse effect is magnified on Venus
  • The average surface temperature is 460C
  • We have had more visits to Venus than any other
    planet 19 spacecrafts one even landed on the
    surface, but only survived for 23 minutes
  • Scientists have mapped the surface of Venus and
    found many volcanoes and strange domes

12
Mars
  • 4th planet from the sun
  • Called the Red Planet because it is red from
    the iron in the soil
  • The atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide (similar
    to Earth before life evolved)
  • Has on about 1 of the pressure Earth has
  • Has clouds, but only very thin ones

13
Mars
  • Mars is much colder than Earth because it is
    farther from the sun
  • The south pole of Mars has frozen carbon dioxide
    or dry ice
  • Mars has a tilted axis like Earth, therefore it
    has seasons like Earth
  • Many spacecrafts have been sent to Mars a few
    have landed and traveled on Mars

14
Mars
  • Those probes are still on Mars that is why
    there have been no manned mission because
    scientists are unsure of how to safely return
    back to Earth
  • Mars has two very small moons
  • Phobos is only 27km wide (a car could travel
    across it in 15 minutes)
  • Deimos is only 15km wide
  • Both are covered in craters

15
Mars
  • Temperatures range from 35C to -170C
  • There are strong winds that blow across the
    surface of Mars
  • Last volcanic eruption was around 100 million
    years ago
  • Olympus Mons is the largest volcano in the solar
    system
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