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Chapter 16: LIFE AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY

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Title: Chapter 16: LIFE AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY


1
Chapter 16 LIFE AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY
  • U.S. HISTORY

2
Technology and City Life
  • In 1870, only 25 American cities were over
    50,000.
  • By 1890, 58 cities were over 50,000
  • By 1900, 4 out of 10 Americans lived in cities.
  • Boom in Technology

3
Skyscrapers
  • Louis Sullivan- designed the Wainwright Building
    in St. Louis
  • Daniel Burnham-designed the Flatiron Building in
    New York

4
Wainwright Building
5
Flatiron Building
6
Electric Transit
  • 1888- Richmond, Virginia was the first city to
    electrify its transit system.
  • Electric Streetcars
  • Subways

7
Engineering and Urban Planning
  • Frederick Law Olmsted led the movement for
    planned urban parks.
  • Planned Central Park in NYC
  • Landscaped St. Louis, Washington D.C., and Boston.

8
Central Park

9
Chicago Worlds Fair 1893
  • Debut of the Ferris Wheel
  • Cream of Wheat
  • Shredded Wheat
  • Aunt Jemima Syrup
  • Pabst Beer
  • Juicy Fruit Gum
  • White City Built by Daniel Burnham

10
Ferris Wheel
11
Wright Brothers
  • Orville and Wilbur Wright- 1st flight occurred in
    Kitty Hawk, N Carolina on December 17, 1903.
  • Flight lasted 12 seconds and covered 120 feet.
  • Air Travel is part of our daily lives today.

12
George Eastman
  • Introduced the Kodak camera.
  • Camera cost 25 including the film.
  • Developed field of photojournalism
  • A novice could enjoy the art of photography

13
Booker T. Washington (1856-1915)
  • American educator, leader, and author of the
    African American community.
  • Born into slavery and wrote an autobiography Up
    From Slavery.
  • Educated at what later became Hampton University.
  • Established Tuskegee University in Alabama.

14
Booker T. Washington (continued)
  • In 1895, delivered the Atlanta Compromise.
  • Encouraged businesses to hire blacks rather than
    immigrants.
  • Supported segregation in speech. Claiming that
    blacks and whites could exist as separate fingers
    of a hand.
  • Whites supported speech, but many black leaders
    opposed Washingtons accommodation philosophy.

15
W.E.B. DuBois (1868-1963)
  • African American civil rights leader,
    sociologist, educator, and historian.
  • Wrote The Souls of Black Folk
  • Opposed Booker T. Washington.
  • Wanted full rights NOW!
  • Born free in Massachusetts.
  • Earned many degrees from top institutions like
    Fisk and Harvard.
  • Taught at Penn and Clark University.

16
W.E.B. DuBois (1868-1963)
  • Founded NAACP in 1909.
  • The problem of the 20th century will be the
    color line.
  • Niagara Movement- freedom of speech, the
    recognition of the highest and best human
    training, full male suffrage.
  • Moved to Ghana in the 1960s and died the night
    before Martin Luther Kings March on Washington.

17
Lynching Statistics
18
Ida B. Wells-Barnett
  • Anti-lynching crusader, suffragist, womens
    rights advocate, journalist and public speaker.
  • One of the founding members of NAACP.
  • Opposed Booker T. Washingtons positions and
    strategies.

19
Lynchings
20
Song Strange Fruit
  • Made famous by Billie Holiday in 1939.
  • Made the anthem of the anti-lynching crusade.
  • Exposed the contradictions of life in the South.

21
Life under Jim Crow
22
Jim Crow Laws
  • The name of the racial caste system which
    operated primarily in southern and border states
    between 1877 and the mid-1960s.
  • African Americans were relegated to the status of
    second class citizens.

23
Where did the name Jim Crow come from?
  • named after and African American caricature Jump
    Jim Crow
  • Come listen all you galls and boys, I'm going to
    sing a little song, My name is Jim Crow. Weel
    about and turn about and do jis so, Eb'ry time I
    weel about I jump Jim Crow.
  • White man in black face would do this dance.
  • Used as a racial slur

24
Examples of Jim Crow Laws
  • The marriage of a person of Caucasian blood with
    a Negro, Mongolian, Malay, or Hindu shall be null
    and void. Arizona
  • No colored barber shall serve as a barber to
    white women or girls. Georgia
  • Books shall not be interchangeable between the
    white and colored schools, but shall continue to
    be used by the race first using them. North
    Carolina
  • The conductors or managers on all such railroads
    shall have power, and are hereby required, to
    assign to each white or colored passenger his or
    her respective car, coach or compartment. If the
    passenger fails to disclose his race, the
    conductor and managers, acting in good faith,
    shall be the sole judges of his race. Virginia

25
Song Black, Brown, and White
  • Sung by blues singer Big Bill Broonzy
  • Recorded in 1951
  • Tells the story of life under the harsh laws of
    Jim Crow
  • Draws attention to the inequities of society.

26
COLORED WATER FOUNTAIN
27
WHITES ONLY
28
TRAVEL DEPOTS
29
RESTROOM FOR WHITES IN FRONTgtDINING ROOM FOR
BLACKS IN REAR
30
CARVER SCHOOL
31
DOUGLASS HIGH
32
White Palace
33
SEGREGATED THEATRE TALLY-HO
34
HISTORY OF DOUGLASS
  • The school stands on land purchased by African
    Americans and presented to the county school
    board in 1940. Though the building was paid for
    with public funds, the black community raised
    money for furnishings, laboratory equipment, and
    band instruments. Named for Frederick Douglass, a
    former slave and prominent abolitionist, the
    school operated as the county's first and only
    black high school from its opening in 1941 until
    the termination of segregated education in 1968.

35
LOUDOUN COUNTY HISTORY
  • 1875-1908 The following towns draw their
    corporate limits to exclude Negro sections
    Hamilton (1875), Lovettsville (1876), Hillsboro
    (1880), Round Hill (1900), and Purcellville
    (1908). The Hamilton, Hillsboro, and Round Hill
    corporate limits still reflect those exclusions

36
LOUDOUN COUNTY HISTORY
  • 1925 The average annual salary for white
    teachers is 836.10, for black teachers, 358.12.
    Starting salaries are 520 and 315. The yearly
    cost to educate a white child is 29.27, a black
    child, 9.81.

37
White School (1935 South Carolina)
38
Colored/Black School (1935 South Carolina)
39
Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
  • Homer Plessys great grandmother was black.
  • Arrested for violating Louisiana segregation laws
    on railway cars.
  • Supreme Court established segregation to be
    legal.
  • Declaring separate but equal the law of the
    land.

40
What were poll taxes, literacy tests, and
grandfather clauses?
  • Poll taxes- certain voters would have to pay a
    fee to vote (poor whites and mostly blacks)
  • Literacy test- blacks in the South would have to
    pass a test to vote.
  • Grandfather clause- grandfather had to have
    eligible to vote

41
What is Americas legacy of Jim Crow? Has
America recovered from segregation?(Please
explain!)
42
What was debt peonage?
  • Landowners forced Mexican farms to pay off debts
    by working on their land.
  • Outlawed in the early 1900s as a violation of
    the 13th Amendment.

43
DAWN OF MASS CULTURE
44
Who was William Randolph Hearst?
  • American newspaper mogul.
  • Sensational newspaper stories in his publication
    The New York Journal
  • Subject of the famous movie Citizen Kane

45
Who was Joseph Pulitzer?
  • Competitor of William Randolph Hearst.
  • Paper The New York World
  • Focus on human interest and sensational news
    stories.
  • Established prestigious Pulitzer Prize.

46
What was the Ashcan School?
  • Portrayed daily life in poor urban neighborhoods.
  • Capture the spontaneous moments in life
  • Illustrated the press of Americanism
  • Rebelled against the storybook landscapes of the
    past era

47
Who was Mark Twain?
  • Leading realist American author.
  • Great sense of humor
  • Most famous book The Adventures of Huckleberry
    Finn

48
What was rural free delivery?
  • Allowed for people in farm (rural) areas to
    receive goods from the cities.
  • Exposed farmers to material goods.

49
How did Americans spend their leisure time?
  • Amusement parks (Coney Island)
  • Baseball
  • Boxing
  • Tennis
  • Bicycling

50
Baseball

51
Negro Baseball League
52
Boxing
53
Tennis
54
Tennis
55
Bicycling
56
What stores were available to consumers?
  • Montgomery Ward
  • Sears
  • Marshall Field Department stores

57
Montgomery Ward

58
Marshall Field
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