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Chapter 26-27 Animal-Like Plant-Like Fungus-Like – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Animal-Like

Chapter 26-27
  • Animal-Like
  • Plant-Like
  • Fungus-Like

Overview of Protozoa
  • Characteristics
  • Single-celled, microscopic, motile, most
    heterotrophic (using food vacuoles), many
    free-living while some parasitic
  • Reproduction
  • Capable of asexual (usu. Binary fission), some
    sexually (conjugation)
  • Classification
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Adaptations
  • Many free-living have eyespot sensory devices to
    detect physical/chemical chgs ability to form
  • Evolution
  • Descendants of early eukaryotes prob. Developed
    through endosymbiosis

Animal-like protists
  • Phylum Sarcodina Amoebapseudopodia (used for
    movement and feeding), cytoplasmic streaming,
    feed on other protists freshwater sarcodines
    have a contractile vacuole naked-Foraminiferans
    found in oceans protected by chambered test of
    calcium carbonate Radiolariansshallow, open
    water test of silicon dioxide with radial spines
    extending through shell
  • Some live in intestines and cause disease
    Entamoeba histolytica enters through
    contaminated food can cause amebic dysentery
  • Phylum Ciliophora Most elaborate organelle
    Multinucleated (macronucleus micronucleus)
    Paramecium pellicle oral groove mouth pore
    gullet (forms food vacuoles) anal pore
  • Reproduce asexually by binary fission (figure
    26-9) reproduce sexually by conjugation

Animal-like protists (cont.)
  • Phylum Zoomastigina presence of 1 flagella
    many are free-living in lakes and ponds some of
    the most important protozoan parasites are
    zooflagellates Trypanosoma live in blood of
    fish, amphibians, birds, reptiles and mammals
    (carried by flies) some are non-pathogenic but
    some cause severe diseases like African Sleeping
    Sickness, Chagas Disease, leishmaniasis, and
  • Phylum Sporozoa adult forms have no means of
    locomotion most are parasitic complex life
    cycles by developing a spore carried in blood
    and other tissues (absorb nutrients and destroy
    tissues) Toxoplasma gondii found in birds,
    rodents, and domestic cats Plasmodium causes

Plant-like protists
  • Overview of Algae
  • Characteristics diverse microscopic to large
    seaweeds autotrophic protists have
    chloroplastsoriginally classified in plant
    kingdom due to this (lack of tissue
    differentiation and no roots, stems, or leaves
    separated them out) most are aquatic and have
    flagella at some point in life cycle cells have
    pyrenoids (synthesize and store starch)
  • Structure thallus body portion usu. haploid
    Unicellular Algae most are aquatic that
    compose phytoplankton Colonial Algae - Volvox
    Filamentous Algae Spirogyra Multicellular
    Algae Ulva and Macrocystis
  • Classification Seven phyla based on color, type
    of chlorophyll, form of food-storage substances,
    and cell wall composition
  • Reproduction Many reproduce both asexually and
    sexually usually triggered by environmental
    stress some only reproduce asexually

Reproduction in Multicellular Algae
  • Varies among phyla
  • Red and brown algae is complex red 3 states of
    sexual life cycle
  • Antheridium male, unicellular gametangium
  • Oogonium female, unicellular gametangium
  • Holdfast rootlike
  • Alternation of generations 2 distinct
    multicellular phases a haploid, gamete
    producing phase and a diploid, spore-producing
  • Gametophyte - haploid, gamete producing phase
  • Sporophyte diploid, spore-producing phase
  • Sporangia reproductive cells of the adult

Plant-like protists (cont.)
  • Phylum Chlorophyta -Green Algae
  • Phylum Phaeophyta -Brown Algae
  • Phylum Rhodophyta -Red Algae
  • Phylum Bacillariophyta -Diatoms
  • Phylum Dinoflagellata -Dinoglagellates
  • Phylum Chrysophyta -Golden Algae
  • Phylum Euglenophyta -Euglenoids

Fungus-like protists
  • Slime molds -spend part of lives in a mobile,
    amoeba-like feeding form And produce funguslike
    reproductive structures found growing on damp
    soil, rotting logs, decaying leaves or other
    decomposing damp matter appear glistening some
    white mostly yellow or red
  • Phylum Acrasiomycota -cellular slime mold indiv.
    Haploid cells move amoeba-like when water
    becomes scarce, release a chem. that attracts
    nearby cells and causes them to gather
    (pseudoplasmodium resembles a slugeventually
    settles, forms fruiting body, developing haploid
    spores wind disperses spores
  • Phylum Myxomycota - plasmodial slime mold mass
    of cytoplasm during feeding stage of life cycle
    (plasmodium) multinucleated when water becomes
    scarce, reproduces on exposed surface forms
    stalked fruiting bodies forming haploid spores
    via meiosissporse resist adverse conditions,
    crack open under favorable conditions and give
    rise to haploid reproductive cells, 2 cells fuse,
    nuclei combine diploid nucleus divides
    mitotically but do not undergo cytokinesis
    multinucleated cytoplasm like plasmodium

(No Transcript)
Fungus-like protists
  • Water molds -fungus-like organism, branching
    filaments of cells, most are aquatic (commonly in
    fresh water) some live in soil some are
  • Phylum Oomycota number of organisms that are
    pathogenic to plants can cause blight reproduce
    asexually (produce motile, flagellated
    reproductive zoospores zoospores germinate into
    threadlike cells, accumulating and forming a
    matlike mass some produce sporangium) and
    sexually(develop egg-containing and
    sperm-containing structures fertilization tubes
    grow between two types of structures allowing
    haploid sperm cells to fertilize haploid egg
    cells diploid zygotesdevelops into a new mass
    of filaments, forming asexual sporangia, sexual
    oogonia and antheridia)
  • Phylum Chytridiomycota - aquatic protists
    characterized by gametes and zoospores with a
    single, posterior flagellum most are
    unicellular some have long filamentous bodies
    used to anchor many are parasites on algae,
    plants, and insects some are saprophytes
    scientists now believe these should be classified
    as fungi due to similar techniques for gaining
    nutritionsome scientists believe the chytrids
    are a link between protists and fungi

What, pray tell, are you to do now?
  • (Optional)FOLDABLE TIME!
  • Foldable 1 Animal-Like Protists
  • 3 sheets (6 flaps)Title flap, General
    Characteristics flap, Last 4 flaps (Phyla
    Sarcodina, Zoomastigina, Sporozoa, and
    Ciliophora)characteristics specific to that
    phylum, diseases it can cause, common example
    drawn, colored, and labeled
  • Foldable 2 Plant-Like Protists
  • 4 sheets (8 flaps) Title flap, Last 7 flaps
    (Phyla Chrysophyta, Chlorophyta, Euglenophyta,
    Rhodophyta, Bacillariophyta, Dinoflagellata, and
    Phaeophyta) characteristics specific to that
    phylum, diseases it can cause, common example
    drawn, colored, and labeled
  • Foldable 3 Fungus-Like Protists
  • 3 sheets (6 flaps)Title flap, General
    Characteristics flap, Last 4 flaps (Phyla
    Myxomycota, Acrasiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and
    Oomycota) characteristics specific to that
    phylum, diseases it can cause, common example
    drawn, colored, and labeled
  • Due Neverthis is just a suggested way to
    organize notes