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The Restoration Colonies

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Title: The Restoration Colonies Author: Susan M. Pojer Last modified by: mdwyer Created Date: 9/2/2003 12:33:39 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Restoration Colonies


1
New York
2
New Netherlands
  • New Netherlands ? founded in the Hudson River
    area (1623-1624)
  • Established by Dutch West India Company for
    quick-profit fur trade.
  • Manhattan New Amsterdam
  • Purchased by Company for pennies per (22,000)
    acre.
  • 60 guilders equivalent of 23.70 (worth about 60
    billion today)

3
New Netherlands Becomes a British Royal Colony
  • Charles II granted New Netherlands land to his
    brother James, the Duke of York, before he
    controlled the area!
  • 1664 ? English soldiers arrived.
  • Dutch had little ammunition, poor defenses and
    poor leadership.
  • Dutch Governor, Peter Stuyvesant, forced to
    surrender without firing a shot.
  • Renamed New York
  • England gained strategic harbor between her
    northern southern colonies.
  • England now controlled the Atlantic coast!

4
Duke of Yorks Original Charter
5
New Amsterdam, 1664
6
MANHATTEN, TODAY
7
New Jersey
8
New Jersey
  • 1664 ? aristocratic proprietors rcvd. the area
    from the Duke of York.
  • Many New Englanders because of worn out soil
    moved to NJ.
  • 1702 ? Combined to one colony

9
Pennsylvania
10
William Penn
  • 1681 ? he received agrant from king toestablish
    a colony.
  • This settled a debt the king
  • owed his father.
  • Named Pennsylvania
  • Penns Woodland.

11
The Quakers
  • Called Quakers because they quaked during
    intense religious practices.
  • They offended religious secular leaders in
    England.
  • Refused to pay taxes to support the Church of
    England.
  • They met without paid clergy
  • Believed all were children of God? refused to
    treat the upper classes with deference.
  • Keep hats on.
  • Addressed them as commoners ? thees/thous.
  • Wouldnt take oaths.
  • Pacifists.

12
The Holy Experiment
  • Different nationalities and religious beliefs
    living in harmony
  • Tolerance and Land compensation to Native
    Americans
  • Quakers went among the Natives unarmed.
  • Friendly and co-existed peacefully, until
    Non-Quakers started settling in the area

13
Penns Treaty with theNative Americans
14
Pennsylvanian Society
  • Attracted many different people
  • Religious misfits from other colonies.
  • Many different ethnic groups.
  • No slavery, no restrictions on immigration.
  • Liberal land policy
  • Representative assembly elected by landowners
  • English govt forced them, however, to deny rt to
    vote hold office to Catholics and Jews by
    English govt

15
Delaware
16
Delaware PAs Neighbor
  • Began as Swedish settlement
  • Named after Lord De La Warr harsh military
    governor of VA in 1610.
  • Closely associated with Penns colony.
  • 1703/4 ? granted its own assembly.

17
Ethnic Groups
18
Life in Middle Colonies
  • Famous Court Case - Peter Zenger
  • Ben Franklin Poor Richards Almanac (Complete
    Activity)
  • If you would not be forgotten, as soon as you
    are dead and rotten, either write things worth
    reading, or do things worth the writing." B.
    Franklin (1706-1790)

19
Ben Franklin
  • Escaped to Philadelphia where he would become a
    famous Printer PA Gazette
  • Poor Richards Almanac under the alias Richard
    Saunders
  • First Public Library (1731)
  • First PA Hospital (1743) PENN
  • First Fire company in Philadelphia
  • Inventor (stove, bifocals, nature of electricity
    and lightening)
  • Very active on the Political scene Americas
    Independence We will discuss this more in the
  • next two chapters!

20
The English Civil War andits Aftermath
  • King Charles I vs. Oliver Cromwell
  • Cromwell wins, rules until 1660
  • King Charles II and monarch restored!
  • Restoration era leads to colonies being settled.

21
Mercantilism
  • Power is measured by wealth and
  • nations wealth is measured by stock of precious
    metals
  • Bullion gold and silver
  • A Favorable balance of trade export
  • more than you import
  • Great Britains system with the help
  • of her colonies

22
Navigation Acts Positives Negatives
  • 1. Monopoly on Tobacco - SC
  • 2. NE shipbuilders and manufacturing
  • 3. English Vessels only
  • 4. Goods must stop in England 1st discourages
    trade w/ other nations
  • 5. Corn laws, Hat Laws, Molasses Act
  • 6. Smuggling
  • Acts were not seriously enforced until after
    French and Indian War

23
Salutary Neglect
  • England allowed its colonies freedom in governing
    themselves
  • WHY?
  • Existing economic and politics of the colonies
    already served British interests

24
Massachusetts In the hot seat
  • England revoked MA charter in 1684, making it a
    royal colony
  • Colonists were becoming more independent, did not
    like King telling
  • them what to do
  • Dominion of New England set up NE Colonists
    hated this!!!

25
Glorious Revolution
  • Protestant opposition invited the Kings daughter
    and her husband, William (both protestant) to
    take the throne from her
  • father
  • Colonists used the events in England to rid
    themselves of hated officials and
  • re-establish representative assemblies

26
The Great Awakening
  • 1st truly mass movement in America 20/30 years
  • Response to Enlightenment period, unchurched,
  • decline in attendance at church, etc.
  • Jonathan Edwards (NE)
  • spider dangling in web of hell at any moment
  • George Whitefield (Middle)
  • Fiery, scary speeches
  • Key test of election is an emotional conversion
  • Reduced Christianity to its lowest common
    denominator (sinners who love god heaven)
  • Samuel Davies (Southern)
  • legal toleration of the dissenters

27
Results of Great Awakening
  • Unified 4/5 of the American people under the
    Christian faith
  • More religious tolerance of other religious sects
  • Greater emphasis on education
  • Greater sense of responsibility for slaves and
    native Americans
  • Breakdown in theological consensus New Lights
    vs old Lights
  • Politically speaking moving toward an American
    identity, contract theory of government (breaking
    away from church if too corrupt, not doing their
    job, and form a new one D of I
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