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Critical Issue in Tourism

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PART I. Economics and Tourism Basic economic tools and concepts Tourism ... Tourism as a market Tourism and growth ... Tribe J. [1995] The Economics of Leisure and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Critical Issue in Tourism


1
Critical Issue in Tourism
  • Jean-Louis CACCOMO
  • Economist at Perpignan Via Domitia University

2
PART I. Economics and Tourism
  • Basic economic tools and concepts

3
Tourism and environment
Tourism potential
Question Comment on the different links between
tourism and environment
4
Structural conditions
  • Tourism depends on economic development and open,
    free societies
  • These conditions are very localized but diffuse
    with globalization.

5
Tourism as a market
6
Tourism and growth
Free time
Productivity
Power of travelling
Income
Tourism demand
Economic growth
7
The market analysis
  • The main laws (supply, demand, equilibrium)
  • The definition of shocks
  • Exercises illustrate different kind of possible
    shock with the following table.

8
Market shock in international tourism make the
corresponding graph.
Nature of shock Economic effect Example
Positive supply shock P and Q Technological innovation
Positive demand shock P and Q Fashion, tastes
Negative supply shock P and Q - Taxes, legal restriction
Negative demand shock P and Q - Terrorism, war
9
Example of adaptation process
Decreasing price
1
Technological innovation
2
Increasing quantity
  • Causality (like the demand law, or the supply
    law)
  • Correlation price and quantity are both affected
    by technological shock
  • Question give the difference between the demand
    law or the supply law
  • And the equilibrium law

10
The Price effect
  • The price-elasticity measure the sensitivity of
    supply or demand (Q) to a change in price (P).
  • Price (P), receipt (R) and elasticity (e)

11
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12
The income effect
  • The income elasticity of tourism demand
  • - Definition
  • - Give the mathematical formulation
  • - the distinction between primary/luxury good
  • for luxury good, income elasticity of demand
    exceed 1.
  • Question In which category do you range tourism
    goods services ?

13
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14
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15
Real world demand elasticities in international
tourism
  • International travel is a luxury good with income
    elasticities of demand exceeding 1.
  • Consumers appear to be more price sensitive to
    the cost transportation and currency change
    rather to destination price.
  • Demand for international travel is generally not
    very responsive to the promotional or marketing
    expenditures of national tourist offices.

16
The Maslow pyramid (1954)
  • The basic concept is that the higher needs
    (tourism) in this hierarchy only come into focus
    once all the needs that are lower down in the
    pyramid are mainly or entirely satisfied.
  • Growth forces create upward movement in the
    hierarchy.
  • How does the Maslow pyramid illustrates the
    connection between income and demand ?

17
Exercises
  • Exercises 1 and 2

18
Public and private interactions in tourism supply
Transportation
Private components (tourism strategy)
Hospitality
entertainment services
Tourism goods services
Heritage, climate
Public components (tourism policy)
Institutions
Infrastructure
Generic information
Question Describe the objective of each area
19
Dynamical interactions
Taxes
Revenue
The state produces public Good services
Firms combines public input with privates
input To create wealth
Wealth increasing
Public sector
Private sector
20
References
  • Bull A. 1995 The Economics of travel and
    tourism. Longman Australia Ltd.
  • Caccomo J.L., Solonandrasana B. 2006
    Linnovation dans lindustrie touristique.
    Deuxième édition, LHarmattan, Paris.
  • Caccomo J.L. 2005 Lépopée de linnovation,
    LHarmattan, Paris.
  • Crouch G.I. 1995  A meta-Analysis of tourism
    demand , Annals of Tourism Research, vol.
    22,103-118.
  • Medlik S. 1995 Managing Tourism.
    Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd, Oxford.
  • Pizam A., Mansfeld Y. 1999 Consumer behaviour
    in travel and tourism. The Haworth Hospitality
    Press, New York and London.
  • Tisdell C. 2000 The Economics of Tourism.
    Edward Elgar Publishing Limited, Massachusetts.
  • Tribe J. 1995 The Economics of Leisure and
    tourism. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd, Oxford.
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