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Step Up To: Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D.

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Step Up To: Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D. From Myers, Psychology 8e Worth Publishers Chapter 12: Motivation and Work 1. Motivation is defined by psychologists ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Step Up To: Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D.


1
Step Up To Psychology by John J. Schulte, Psy.D.
  • From Myers,
  • Psychology 8e
  • Worth Publishers

2
Chapter 12 Motivation and Work
Sex can Motivate
Eat at Joes
Belong
Viewpoints
On the Job
3
Viewpoints
500
400
300
200
100
4
Eat at Joes
500
400
300
200
100
5
Sex can Motivate
500
400
300
200
100
6
Belong
500
400
300
200
100
7
On the Job
500
400
300
200
100
8
1. Motivation is defined by psychologists as
  • A) an impulse to accomplish something of
    significance.
  • B) rigidly patterned behavior characteristic of
    all people.
  • C) a need or desire that energizes and directs
    behavior toward a goal.
  • D) the cause of behavior.

9
2. It is characteristic of bears to hibernate.
This behavior is an example of
  • A) a refractory period.
  • B) an instinct.
  • C) homeostasis.
  • D) an incentive.

10
3. Homeostasis refers to
  • A) a rigidly patterned behavior characteristic of
    an entire species.
  • B) an aroused or activated state that is often
    triggered by a physiological need.
  • C) the bodys tendency to maintain a constant
    internal state.
  • D) a physical need that usually triggers
    motivational arousal.

11
4. On some college football teams, players are
rewarded for outstanding performance with a gold
star on their helmets. This practice best
illustrates the use of
  • A) set points.
  • B) 360-degree feedback.
  • C) incentives.
  • D) participative management.

12
5. According to Maslow, our need for ___ must be
met before we are preoccupied with satisfying our
need for ____.
  • A) love food
  • B) adequate clothing self-esteem
  • C) religious fulfillment adequate housing
  • D) self-actualization friendship

13
6. The set point is
  • A) the stage of the sexual response cycle that
    occurs just before orgasm.
  • B) the body temperature of a healthy organism,
    for example, 98.6 degrees F in humans.
  • C) the point at which a certain weight is reached
    according to height.
  • D) the specific body weight maintained
    automatically by most adults over long periods of
    time.

14
7. Anorexia nervosa is typically characterized
by
  • A) an unusually high rate of metabolism.
  • B) cyclical fluctuations between extreme thinness
    and obesity.
  • C) frequent migraine headaches.
  • D) an obsessive fear of becoming obese.

15
8. If Mary Ann is a typical college student, it
is most probable that she
  • A) thinks men prefer her to weigh less than they
    actually prefer.
  • B) thinks she weighs less than what men actually
    prefer her to weigh.
  • C) thinks she weighs less than she would like to
    weigh.
  • D) thinks men prefer her to weigh less than she
    would like to weigh.

16
9. Julie, 22, is slightly overweight and loves
to eat, particularly snack foods and rich
desserts. Fearful of becoming overweight, she
frequently takes a laxative following episodes of
binge eating. She suffers from
  • A) bulimia nervosa.
  • B) anorexia nervosa.
  • C) an abnormally high set point.
  • D) hypermetabolism.

17
10. Anorexia patients are most likely to have
parents who
  • A) have physically or sexually abused their
    children.
  • B) are high-achieving and protective.
  • C) have been recently separated or divorced.
  • D) are unconcerned about physical appearance and
    body weight.

18
11. In most mammals, female sexual receptivity is
greatest when
  • A) testosterone levels are lowest.
  • B) testosterone levels are highest.
  • C) estrogen levels are lowest.
  • D) estrogen levels are highest.

19
12. Research on the sexual response cycle
indicates that
  • A) males and females experience a similar
    refractory period following orgasm.
  • B) women undergo a decrease in physiological
    arousal more slowly if they have experienced
    orgasm than if they have not.
  • C) enough sperm may be released prior to male
    orgasm to enable conception.
  • D) during the resolution phase, sexual excitement
    increases in females but decreases in males.

20
13. The refractory period is
  • A) the moment before orgasm during which sexual
    arousal is maintained at a fairly high level.
  • B) the stage during which sexual excitation
    reaches its climax.
  • C) the span of the monthly female reproductive
    cycle during which ovulation occurs.
  • D) the time span after orgasm during which a
    male cannot be aroused to another orgasm.

21
14. A homosexual orientation is
  • A) equally likely among members of both sexes.
  • B) associated with a lack of clear gender
    identity.
  • C) very persistent and difficult to change.
  • D) a result of being sexually victimized during
    childhood.

22
15. Research has found that an animals sexual
orientation can be altered by
  • A) manipulations of prenatal hormone conditions.
  • B) destruction of the ventromedial hypothalamus.
  • C) injections of sex hormones in early
    adulthood.
  • D) destruction of the amygdala.

23
16. Evolutionary psychologists are most likely to
suggest that almost all humans are genetically
predisposed to
  • A) engage in both homosexual and heterosexual
    behaviors.
  • B) form close enduring relationships with fellow
    humans.
  • C) avoid eating carbohydrate-laden foods when
    feeling depressed.
  • D) satisfy their need for political freedom
    before seeking emotional security.

24
17. When peoples need to belong is fulfilled
through close relationships, they are less likely
to
  • A) commit suicide.
  • B) contract physical illness.
  • C) suffer psychological disorders.
  • D) experience any of the above.

25
18. Our _____ serves as a gauge of how socially
accepted we feel.
  • A) set point
  • B) basal metabolic rate
  • C) self-esteem
  • D) sexual response cycle

26
19. Andy Williams went on a shooting spree in his
high school, killing 2 and wounding 13. His
explanation was that he was a victim of
  • A) school-related stress.
  • B) ostracism.
  • C) belonging to the wrong peer group.
  • D) a hate crime.

27
20. After years of placing individual refugee
and immigrant families in isolated communities,
U.S. policies today encourage
  • A) chain migration.
  • B) joining a club.
  • C) government housing projects.
  • D) reintegration with society.

28
21. Which profession is most directly involved in
the application of psychologys principles to the
workplace?
  • A) social psychology
  • B) personality psychology
  • C) developmental psychology
  • D) industrial-organizational psychology

29
22. Managers with a task-leadership style would
be most likely to
  • A) mediate a conflict between two argumentative
    employees.
  • B) give employees a high degree of freedom to
    develop their own work procedures.
  • C) remind employees of the exact deadlines for
    the completion of work projects.
  • D) avoid closely monitoring the productivity of
    individual employees.

30
23. The on-time completion of major work projects
is most clearly facilitated by
  • A) establishing set points.
  • B) scripting structured interviews.
  • C) receiving 360-degree feedback.
  • D) stating implementation intentions.

31
24. Organizational psychologists are most likely
to be involved in
  • A) matching peoples strengths with specific job
    assignments.
  • B) modifying work environments in order to
    improve employee engagement.
  • C) contributing to the design of user-friendly
    industrial machines.
  • D) designing training programs to prepare
    unemployed persons for existing jobs.

32
25. Dr. Thompson is involved in scripting
interview questions that will effectively predict
job applicants success in specific work
positions. Her work best illustrates that of
a(n)
  • A) personnel psychologist.
  • B) organizational psychologist.
  • C) human resource specialist.
  • D) human factors psychologist.

33
Congratulations!
34
Answers
Stop here, or continue as a review
35
1. Motivation is defined by psychologists as
  • A) an impulse to accomplish something of
    significance.
  • B) rigidly patterned behavior characteristic of
    all people.
  • C) a need or desire that energizes and directs
    behavior toward a goal.
  • D) the cause of behavior.

469
36
2. It is characteristic of bears to hibernate.
This behavior is an example of
  • A) a refractory period.
  • B) an instinct.
  • C) homeostasis.
  • D) an incentive.

470
37
3. Homeostasis refers to
  • A) a rigidly patterned behavior characteristic of
    an entire species.
  • B) an aroused or activated state that is often
    triggered by a physiological need.
  • C) the bodys tendency to maintain a constant
    internal state.
  • D) a physical need that usually triggers
    motivational arousal.

471
38
4. On some college football teams, players are
rewarded for outstanding performance with a gold
star on their helmets. This practice best
illustrates the use of
  • A) set points.
  • B) 360-degree feedback.
  • C) incentives.
  • D) participative management.

471
39
5. According to Maslow, our need for ___ must be
met before we are preoccupied with satisfying our
need for ____.
  • A) love food
  • B) adequate clothing self-esteem
  • C) religious fulfillment adequate housing
  • D) self-actualization friendship

472
40
6. The set point is
  • A) the stage of the sexual response cycle that
    occurs just before orgasm.
  • B) the body temperature of a healthy organism,
    for example, 98.6 degrees F in humans.
  • C) the point at which a certain weight is reached
    according to height.
  • D) the specific body weight maintained
    automatically by most adults over long periods of
    time.

476
41
7. Anorexia nervosa is typically characterized
by
  • A) an unusually high rate of metabolism.
  • B) cyclical fluctuations between extreme thinness
    and obesity.
  • C) frequent migraine headaches.
  • D) an obsessive fear of becoming obese.

478
42
8. If Mary Ann is a typical college student, it
is most probable that she
  • A) thinks men prefer her to weigh less than they
    actually prefer.
  • B) thinks she weighs less than what men actually
    prefer her to weigh.
  • C) thinks she weighs less than she would like to
    weigh.
  • D) thinks men prefer her to weigh less than she
    would like to weigh.

479
43
9. Julie, 22, is slightly overweight and loves
to eat, particularly snack foods and rich
desserts. Fearful of becoming overweight, she
frequently takes a laxative following episodes of
binge eating. She suffers from
  • A) bulimia nervosa.
  • B) anorexia nervosa.
  • C) an abnormally high set point.
  • D) hypermetabolism.

478
44
10. Anorexia patients are most likely to have
parents who
  • A) have physically or sexually abused their
    children.
  • B) are high-achieving and protective.
  • C) have been recently separated or divorced.
  • D) are unconcerned about physical appearance and
    body weight.

479
45
11. In most mammals, female sexual receptivity is
greatest when
  • A) testosterone levels are lowest.
  • B) testosterone levels are highest.
  • C) estrogen levels are lowest.
  • D) estrogen levels are highest.

482
46
12. Research on the sexual response cycle
indicates that
  • A) males and females experience a similar
    refractory period following orgasm.
  • B) women undergo a decrease in physiological
    arousal more slowly if they have experienced
    orgasm than if they have not.
  • C) enough sperm may be released prior to male
    orgasm to enable conception.
  • D) during the resolution phase, sexual excitement
    increases in females but decreases in males.

481
47
13. The refractory period is
  • A) the moment before orgasm during which sexual
    arousal is maintained at a fairly high level.
  • B) the stage during which sexual excitation
    reaches its climax.
  • C) the span of the monthly female reproductive
    cycle during which ovulation occurs.
  • D) the time span after orgasm during which a
    male cannot be aroused to another orgasm.

482
48
14. A homosexual orientation is
  • A) equally likely among members of both sexes.
  • B) associated with a lack of clear gender
    identity.
  • C) very persistent and difficult to change.
  • D) a result of being sexually victimized during
    childhood.

487
49
15. Research has found that an animals sexual
orientation can be altered by
  • A) manipulations of prenatal hormone conditions.
  • B) destruction of the ventromedial hypothalamus.
  • C) injections of sex hormones in early
    adulthood.
  • D) destruction of the amygdala.

491
50
16. Evolutionary psychologists are most likely to
suggest that almost all humans are genetically
predisposed to
  • A) engage in both homosexual and heterosexual
    behaviors.
  • B) form close enduring relationships with fellow
    humans.
  • C) avoid eating carbohydrate-laden foods when
    feeling depressed.
  • D) satisfy their need for political freedom
    before seeking emotional security.

495
51
17. When peoples need to belong is fulfilled
through close relationships, they are less likely
to
  • A) commit suicide.
  • B) contract physical illness.
  • C) suffer psychological disorders.
  • D) experience any of the above.

495
52
18. Our _____ serves as a gauge of how socially
accepted we feel.
  • A) set point
  • B) basal metabolic rate
  • C) self-esteem
  • D) sexual response cycle

496
53
19. Andy Williams went on a shooting spree in his
high school, killing 2 and wounding 13. His
explanation was that he was a victim of
  • A) school-related stress.
  • B) ostracism.
  • C) belonging to the wrong peer group.
  • D) a hate crime.

497
54
20. After years of placing individual refugee
and immigrant families in isolated communities,
U.S. policies today encourage
  • A) chain migration.
  • B) joining a club.
  • C) government housing projects.
  • D) reintegration with society.

496
55
21. Which profession is most directly involved in
the application of psychologys principles to the
workplace?
  • A) social psychology
  • B) personality psychology
  • C) developmental psychology
  • D) industrial-organizational psychology

499
56
22. Managers with a task-leadership style would
be most likely to
  • A) mediate a conflict between two argumentative
    employees.
  • B) give employees a high degree of freedom to
    develop their own work procedures.
  • C) remind employees of the exact deadlines for
    the completion of work projects.
  • D) avoid closely monitoring the productivity of
    individual employees.

508
57
23. The on-time completion of major work projects
is most clearly facilitated by
  • A) establishing set points.
  • B) scripting structured interviews.
  • C) receiving 360-degree feedback.
  • D) stating implementation intentions.

508
58
24. Organizational psychologists are most likely
to be involved in
  • A) matching peoples strengths with specific job
    assignments.
  • B) modifying work environments in order to
    improve employee engagement.
  • C) contributing to the design of user-friendly
    industrial machines.
  • D) designing training programs to prepare
    unemployed persons for existing jobs.

499
59
25. Dr. Thompson is involved in scripting
interview questions that will effectively predict
job applicants success in specific work
positions. Her work best illustrates that of
a(n)
  • A) personnel psychologist.
  • B) organizational psychologist.
  • C) human resource specialist.
  • D) human factors psychologist.

499
60
Acknowledgements
  • Step Up Created by
  • John J. Schulte, Psy.D.
  • Based on Psychology, Eighth Edition by
  • David Myers
  • Published by
  • Worth Publishers, 2006

61
Answers
1. C
2. B
3. C
4. C
5. B
6. D
7. D
8. A
9. A
10. B
11. D
12. C
13. D
14. C
15. A
16. B
17. D
18. C
19. B
20. A
21. D
22. C
23. D
24. B
25. A
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