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People Centered Leadership Post Graduate Course in Effective Leadership

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Title: People Centered Leadership Post Graduate Course in Effective Leadership


1
  • People Centered LeadershipPost Graduate Course
    in Effective Leadership
  • Alberto Zucconi
  • World Academy of Art and Science (WAAS)
  • World University Consortium (WUC)
  • Person Centered Approach Institute (IACP)
  • azucconi_at_iacp.it
  • azucconi_at_worldacademy.org
  • Inter- University Centre (IUC), March 31-April
    3, 2015 , Dubrovnik, Slovenia

2
  • WE live in a period of globalization and of
    growing complexity.
  • In order to meet our present and future
    challenges every community needs effective ways
    to cope.

3
  • WE need to facilitate the emerging of effective
    leaders at every level of society
  • We need effective leaders at every level
  • We need leaders that are healthy, not
    narcissistic or psychopathic ones
  • We need leaders that are people centered
  • and emphatic
  • We need leaders that are generous and not
    selfish ones
  • We need leaders that empower their people not
    those that enslave them

4
  • Independent, resilient and
  • empowered people
  • are more creative
  • and capable of
  • effective crisis management than those who are
    just passive followers

5
  • How well do you listen? Listening is a key
    leadership skill
  • Gail Reichert

6
  • Carl Rogers is a good example of a people -
    centered leader, a firm believer on empowerment
  • When he was asked, "What is a good leader?" Carl
    would pull a crumpled piece of paper out of his
    wallet and read aloud what Lao Tzu had written
  • When his task is accomplished and things have
    been completed, all the people say, we ourselves
    have achieved it!

7
  • In my early professional years I was asking the
    question How can I treat, or cure, or change
    this person? Now I would phrase the question in
    this way
  • How can I provide a relationship which this
    person may use for his own personal growth?
  • Carl Rogers

8
  • When I look at the world I'm pessimistic, but
    when
  • I look at people
  • I am optimistic.
  • Carl Rogers

9
  • The only person who is educated is the one who
    has learned how to learn and change.
  • Carl Rogers

10
  • Classic economic theory, based as it is on an
    inadequate theory of human motivation, could be
    revolutionized by accepting the reality of higher
    human needs, including the impulse to self
    actualization and the love for the highest
    values.
  • Abraham Maslow

11
  • "Of all the tools available to us in dealing with
    conflict, none is more important than attentive,
    intentional listening.
  • Listening helps reduce resistance and opens our
    thinking to creative solutions.
  • Listening not only clarifies the message but
    changes both the messenger and the listener.
    Listening makes it possible for both sides to
    have a change of heart."
  •  Brian Muldon

12
  • Man's inability to communicate is a result of
    his failure to listen effectively. 
  • Carl Rogers

13
  • It is better to lead from behind and to put
    others in front, especially when you celebrate
    victory when nice things occur. You take the
    front line when there is danger. Then people will
    appreciate your leadership.
  • Nelson Mandela

14
  • Courageous people do not fear forgiving, for the
    sake of peace
  • Nelson Mandela

15
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16
  •  When a person realizes he has been deeply
    heard, his eyes moisten. I think in some real
    sense he is weeping for joy. It is as though he
    were saying, "Thank God, somebody heard me.
    Someone knows what it's like to be me.
  • Carl Rogers

17
  • "When I ask you to listen and you start giving
    advice, you  have not done what I have asked.
  • When I ask you to listen and you start telling me
    why I shouldn't feel the way I do, you are
    invalidating my feelings.
  • When I ask you to listen and you start trying to
    solve my problems, I feel underestimated and
    disempowered. When I ask you to listen and you
    start telling me what I need to do, I feel
    offended, pressured and controlled. When I ask
    you to listen, it does not mean I am helpless.

18
  • When I ask you to listen and you do things that I
    can and need to do for myself, you hurt my
    self-esteem.
  • But when you accept the way I feel, then I don't
    need to spend time and energy trying to defend
    myself or convince you, and I can focus on
    figuring out why I feel the way I feel and what
    to do about it.
  • And when I do that, I don't need advice, just
    support, trust and encouragement.
  • Please remember that what you think are
    irrational feelings always makes sense if you
    take the time to listen and understand me." 
  • Mark Brady

19
  • "Of all the skills of leadership, listening is
    the most valuable and one of the least
    understood.
  • Most captains of industry listen only sometimes,
    and they remain ordinary leaders.
  • But a few, the great ones, never stop listening.
  • That's how they get word before anyone else of
    unseen problems and opportunities." 
  • Peter Nulty - National Business Hall of Fame
    Fortune Magazine

20
  • Big egos have little ears.
  • Robert Schuller

21
  • "The ear of the leader must ring with the voices
    of the people."
  • Woodrow Wilson 

22
  • Courage is what it takes to stand up and speak
    courage is also what it takes to sit down and
    listen.
  • Winston Churchill

23
  • Participative vs. Autocratic Leadership
  • A growing body of research shows that companies
    with a participative management style are more
    financially successful than those with autocratic
    styles. More and better ideas, free flow of
    information, improved decisions, higher
    productivity, higher morale, less absenteeism,
    lower turnover - all have a positive impact on
    the bottom line.
  • A 10-year study of 30 companies published in 1996
    demonstrated that organizations that
    consistently practice good people management
    create an environment that reduces--even
    eliminates--significant workplace stressors--have
    higher sales, profit, growth and margins

  • (Kravetz, 1996)

24
  • Leadership is a set of functions that are the
    property of the group and should be distributed
    to group members.
  • The most effective leader is one who creates the
    conditions by which s/he will give up the
    traditional leadership role and become more of a
    group member. Consequently, group members will
    then carry out some of the functions of the
    leader.
  • Group problems require participative group
    problem-solving.
  • Leaders create the conditions in which all the
    group members feel safe to communicate their
    ideas and feelings.
  • Group-centered leaders set a model of empathic
    listening ,
  • Group-centered leaders convey acceptance of the
    members communication.
  • Thomas Gordon

25
  • Emotional Intelligence
  • is the ability of people to recognize emotions
    both in themselves and in others to understand
    and communicate about their emotions hear and
    understand others feelings
  • and build and maintain satisfying relationships
    with others.
  • Research has shown that EQ is more important than
    IQ in determining ones success in life, both as
    individuals and in relationships with others.

26
  • Social Intelligence (SI) is the ability to get
    along well with others, and to get them to
    cooperate with you. SI informally referred as
    "people skills," includes an awareness of
    situations and the social dynamics that govern
    them, and a knowledge of interaction styles and
    strategies that can help a person achieve his or
    her objectives in dealing with others. It also
    involves a certain amount of self-insight and a
    consciousness of one's own perceptions and
    reaction patterns.
  • From the standpoint of interpersonal skills, Karl
    Albrecht classifies behavior toward others as
    falling somewhere on a spectrum between "toxic"
    effect and "nourishing" effect. Toxic behavior
    makes people feel devalued, angry, frustrated,
    guilty or otherwise inadequate. Nourishing
    behavior makes people feel valued, respected,
    affirmed, encouraged or competent.

27
  • Characteristics of the Most Effective Leaders
  • They decrease the power differential between self
    and team members
  • They create conditions for distributing the
    leadership function throughout the group
  • They show respect for the intrinsic worth of
    team members
  • They show respect for team members as individuals
    who are different from the leader
  • They deeply feel that people arent there to be
    used, directed, or influenced to accomplish only
    the leaders aims
  • They listen with empathy
  • They demonstrate acceptance
  • They express their own beliefs, needs and ideas
    honestly, clearly, and without blame
  • They work to resolve conflicts in a win-win way
    that creates mutual need satisfaction

28
  • Do I really trust the capacity of the team and
    of the individuals on it to solve the problems
    facing us? Or do I basically trust only myself?
  • Do I create a climate in which my team can have
    creative discussions by being willing to hear,
    understand, accept and respect all input? Or do I
    find myself trying to influence the outcome of
    discussions?
  • Do I honestly express my own beliefs and ideas
    without trying to control those of others?
  • When there are problems and conflicts, do I make
    it possible for them to be brought out into the
    open, or do I subtly communicate that they should
    be kept hidden?

29
  • Skills to meet group members needs
  • 1. Behavior that increases group members
    self-esteem and personal worth.
  • 2. Behavior that increases group cohesiveness and
    team spirit.
  • Skills to meet organizational needs
  • 1. Behavior that motivates productivity and the
    achievement of group goals.
  • 2. Behavior that helps members reach goals
    planning, scheduling, coordinating,
    problem-solving, providing resources.
  • Skills to resolve conflicts
  • 1.The effective leader must learn skills to
    resolve the inevitable conflicts that arise among
    his team members

30
  • Promoting processes that protect and foster the
    development of fully functioning persons,
    families, groups, organizations and communities
    and that foster the development of effective,
    compassionate and people centered leaders is not
    only of vital importance for human survival and
    welfare but also for the welfare of the entire
    planet.

31
Humanistic Psychology instead of
focusing only on pathology has studied people
that are particularly healthy and fully
functioning, investigating the common
denominators of those people
Humanistic Psychology instead of focalizing only
on pathology has studied people that are
particularlHumanistic Psychology instead of
focalizing only on pathology has studied people
that are particularly healthy and fully
functioning, investigating the common
denominators of those people y healthy and fully
functioning, investigating the common
denominators of those people
32
  • Kurt Goldstein described self-actualization as
    the tendency to actualize, as much as possible,
    the organism's individual capacities in the
    world.
  • The tendency toward self-actualization is the
    only drive by which the life of an organism is
    determined.

33
  • Abraham Maslow based his theory on his case
    studies of historical figures whom he saw as
    examples of self-actualized individuals
    including Albert Einstein, Ruth Benedict,
    Frederick Douglass, Jane Addams Eleanor
    Roosevelt, Max Wertheimer, Henry David Thoreau.
  • Maslow examined the lives of each of these people
    in order to asses the common qualities that led
    each to become self-actualized.

34
  • In general he found that these individuals were,
    accepting of themselves and of their life
    circumstances very creative focused on finding
    solutions to cultural problems rather than just
    to concentrate on personal problems open to
    others' opinions and ideas had a strong sense of
    privacy, autonomy, human values and appreciation
    of life and a few intimate friendships rather
    than many superficial ones.
  • They also all reported the frequent occurrence of
    peak experiences . These occasions were marked by
    feelings of harmony and deep meaning feeling at
    one with the universe.

35
  • For Carl Rogers human nature has a fundamental
    tendency, the actualizing tendency where
    self-awareness generates self-regulation.

36
  • The research of Carl Rogers and his group on the
    fully functioning person found the following
    common denominators
  • Self aware, integrated, in touch, deep,
    authentic, trusting, creative, good capacity for
    affiliation and communication, balanced and
    realistic
  • Psychological health, maturity, existential
    depth, effective self- regulation, respect for
    themselves and others
  • Openness to experience (instead of the rigid
    defense stance of the person feeling under
    threat)
  • Personality mature, fluid, absence of rigidity /
    fundamentalism
  • Maximum of adaptability
  • Trust in themselves, their organism, intuitions,
    feelings and values
  • Sense of direction, purpose, leadership qualities

37
  • The process of the fully functioning person is
    seen by Rogers as a challenge
  • This process is not, I am convinced, a life for
    the faint-hearted.
  • It involves the stretching and growing of
    becoming more and more of one's potentialities.
  • It involves the courage to be.


  • (Carl Rogers 1961)

38
  • Carl Rogers research over the last 70 years has
    identified specific qualities in relationships
    which promote the development of fully
    functioning people as well as the healing of
    partially functioning people
  • Respect
  • Empathic understanding
  • Authenticity/congruence (deep contact)

39
  • People that are related to in this nourishing way
    tend to reproduce these qualities in their
  • new relationships.

40
  • We need more people and especially more
    leaders that relate to themselves, to others and
    to the planet with more
  • Respect
  • Empathy
  • Authenticity/congruence (deep contact)

41
  • By fostering the conditions that protect and
    promote individuality, people centered leadership
    in all the processes of the construction of
    reality, identity, social roles and behaviors.
  • By relating to others in respectful, emphatic,
    genuine and congruent ways in the fields of
  • Parenting
  • Schooling
  • Workplaces
  • Community
  • Society
  • Culture

42
  • We will be part of the solutions
  • and not of the problems afflicting present
    society

43
  • Thank You!

44
  • Alberto Zucconi
  • azucconi_at_iacp.it
  • azucconi_at_worldacademy.org
  • World Academy of Art and Science
  • www.worldacademy.org
  • World University Consortium (WUC)
  • www.wunicon.org
  • Person Centered Approach Institute (IACP)
  • www.iacp.it
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