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Text Book: Separation Process Principles by J. D. Seader , Ernest J. Henley , Second Edition, 2006

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Title: Text Book: Separation Process Principles by J. D. Seader , Ernest J. Henley , Second Edition, 2006


1
Text Book Separation Process Principles by J. D.
Seader , Ernest J. Henley , Second Edition, 2006
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CHE 334 SEPARATION PROCESSES
Dr. Saad Al-Shahrani
References 1.Separation Processes by King, C.J.,
2nd ed. Mc Graw Hill (1980). 2.http//www.separati
onprocesses.com/Mainmenu.htm.
Dr Saad Al-Shahrani
ChE 334 Separation Processes
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Introduction to Separation processes
  • What are separation processes?

Separation processes are defined as those
operations which transform a mixture of
substances into two or more products which differ
from each other in composition.
  • The main goal of separation process is to purify
    solution,

To do this we must cause different transport of
species or convection of species so that the
purer mixture can be collected.Most separation
processes involve differential transport.
Dr Saad Al-Shahrani
ChE 334 Separation Processes
10
Introduction to Separation processes
Dr Saad Al-Shahrani
ChE 334 Separation Processes
11
Introduction to Separation processes
Dr Saad Al-Shahrani
ChE 334 Separation Processes
12
Introduction to Separation processes
Crude oil
Dr Saad Al-Shahrani
ChE 334 Separation Processes
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Introduction to Separation processes
  • Examples of Separation processes
  • Separation of blood.
  • Purification of drugs.
  • Purification of Au, Ag, Ti.
  • Refining of crude oil.
  • DNA testing.
  • Purification of organic material.
  • Purification of water.
  • Separation of water and waste product of
    metabolism from blood Kidney

Dr Saad Al-Shahrani
ChE 334 Separation Processes
14
Introduction to Separation processes
  • The separation technology involved in crude oil
    reforming include
  • Distillation Which separates various chemical
    component according to volatility.
  • Alkylation to react small hydrocarbon molecules
    to create larger hydrocarbon molecules.
  • Catalytic reforming which is used to modify the
    structure of medium sized hydrocarbons.
  • Fluid catalytic cracking to break apart very
    large hydrocarbon molecules.
  • Hydrocracking to break apart very large
    hydrocarbon molecules.

Dr Saad Al-Shahrani
ChE 334 Separation Processes
15
Introduction to Separation processes
  • Why Separation?

There are many reasons for wanting pure
substances. Some of these reasons include
  • Need for pure material in engineering
    applications.
  • Preparation of raw materials into their
    component.
  • Need for pure material for materials processing.
  • Need to remove toxins or inactive components from
    solution (drugs)
  • Need for ultra-pure samples for testing.
  • Need for analysis of the components of mixture
    (DNA testing)

Dr Saad Al-Shahrani
ChE 334 Separation Processes
16
Introduction to Separation processes
  • Based on these motivation for separations, we can
    divide separations up into three main areas

Analytical Separation
preparative Separation
industrial Separation
  • Small scale
  • To determine composition of complex mixture
    quantitative.
  • Small scale
  • To recover and purify chemicals
  • large scale
  • To manufacture chemicals using separation methods

Example Chromatography
Example Centrifugation
Example Distillation
Dr Saad Al-Shahrani
ChE 334 Separation Processes
17
Introduction to Separation processes
  • The list of different existing separations
    methods is limitless. Therefore we will emphasize
    the fundamentals of separations.
  • Note 50 to 90 percent of capital investment in
    chemical plant is for separation equipments.

Dr Saad Al-Shahrani
ChE 334 Separation Processes
18
Time 120 h Cinitial450 mg Sr/Kg of
dry clay Catholyte H2SO4 Sr extraction 86.7
Basic Description of operations
  • Separation processes can be run in various modes
    of operation
  • Batchwise no flows
  • Continuous continuous flows in and out of
    separations
  • Semicontinuous pauses in flows.
  • Operations are classified as key operations and
    auxiliary operations
  • Key Operation involves a change in chemical
    composition such as
  • Chemical reaction
  • Separation of mixtures of chemicals.
  • Examples leaching, distillation, and gas
    absorption

Dr Saad Al-Shahrani
ChE 334 Separation Processes
19
Basic Description of operations
  • Auxiliary Operation which is required to carry
    out the key operations
  • Examples pumps, heaters, and compressors.

Dr Saad Al-Shahrani
ChE 334 Separation Processes
20
Basic Description of operations
S1
P1
  • Block Flow Diagrams indicate
  • Key operation by rectangles.
  • Flows and Streams by lines.

F
Distillation
S2
P2
Dr Saad Al-Shahrani
ChE 334 Separation Processes
21
Basic Description of operations
  • Process Flow Diagrams indicates processes by

Total condenser
  • Realistic symbols of process equipment.
  • Including auxiliary operations.

Reflux drum
Overhead vapor
1
Reflux
Distillate
2
Distillation
Feed
Feed stage
Boilup
N
Stripping section stages
Partial reboiler
bottoms
Dr Saad Al-Shahrani
ChE 334 Separation Processes
22
Basic Description of operations
  • Mechanism of separation
  • The mixing of chemicals to form a mixture is a
    spontaneous, natural process that is accompanied
    by an increase in entropy or randomness (?S)
  • The inverse process (the separation of the
    mixture into its constituent chemical species) is
    not spontaneous process, it requires an
    expenditure of energy.
  • A mixture to be separated usually originates as a
    single homogenous phase (solid, liquid, or gas)

Dr Saad Al-Shahrani
ChE 334 Separation Processes
23
Basic Description of operations
  • If it exists as two or more immiscible phases, it
    must be first separate the phases by some
    mechanical means based on gravity, centrifugal
    force, pressure reduction, or electric or
    magnetic field. Then appropriate separation
    techniques are applied to each phase.
  • A schematic diagram of general separation process

Product 1
Product 2
Feed mixture to be separated (S, L, V, Ci)
Separation process
Product N-1
Product N
Dr Saad Al-Shahrani
ChE 334 Separation Processes
24
Basic Description of operations
  • The feed mixture may be vapor, liquid or solid,
    while the two or more products may differ in
    composition from each other and the feed may
    differ in phase state from each other and / or
    from the feed

Dr Saad Al-Shahrani
ChE 334 Separation Processes
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