Experiences with language in (central) Europe: citizenship and belonging - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: Experiences with language in (central) Europe: citizenship and belonging


1
Experiences with language in (central) Europe
citizenship and belonging
  • Patrick Stevenson
  • Centre for Transnational Studies
  • University of Southampton

2
Introduction
  • Conference themes where do linguists come in?
  • Linguistic nationalism then and now.
  • National languages and multilingual Europe.
  • Language questions within and across national
    borders.

3
Structure
  • 1 Problematising language and European
    discourses on multilingualism
  • 2 Implications for researching language a
    sociolinguistics of globalisation
  • 3 A selective survey of current research projects
  • 4 The German language and the future of Europe
  • 5 Conclusions the relevance of language to
    nationalism and national identities

4
Problematising language and European discourses
on multilingualism
  • Conceptual fuzziness of language.
  • Languages as European invention.
  • Convenient myths of linguistic homogeneity.
  • Advantages
  • inclusion and exclusion
  • mutual legitimisation of linguistic and national
    boundaries

5
Problematising language and European discourses
on multilingualism
  • Problems
  • Language names as portmanteau terms
  • Scope of languages arbitrary and contingent
  • Status as language not natural but ascribed
  • Preference therefore for linguistic varieties
    and linguistic practices, including
    metalinguistic practices.

6
Problematising language and European discourses
on multilingualism
  • Discrete, hierarchically ordered languages
    enduring European language ideology.
  • Privileged status of national languages in
    multilingual states.
  • The EU and the multilingual mantra.

7
Problematising language and European discourses
on multilingualism
  • Commissioner Orban (April 2007)
  • Multilingualism has been, from the very
    beginning, part of the genetic code of the
    European Union.
  • Framework Strategy for Multilingualism (2005)
  • target for every citizen to have
    practical skills in at least two languages in
    addition to his or her mother tongue.

8
Problematising language and European discourses
on multilingualism
  • Eurobarometer Special Report 243 (2006) Europeans
    and Their Languages
  • 99 of Luxembourgers
  • 29 of Hungarians
  • can participate in a conversation in another
    language than their mother tongue.
  • Monolingualism as natural condition.

9
Problematising language and European discourses
on multilingualism
  • Framework Strategy
  • places responsibility for developing policy with
    Member States
  • calls for national plans to give coherence and
    direction to actions to promote multilingualism
    and
  • concedes that the teaching of regional and
    minority languages should be taken into account
    as appropriate,
  • alongside opportunities for migrants to learn
    the language of the host country (and the
    teaching of migrant languages).

10
Problematising language and European discourses
on multilingualism
  • Commissioner for Multilingualisms political
    agenda for multilingualism key objectives
    include providing access to online information
    services and EU legislation to citizens in their
    own languages.
  • What seem to be the implications here?

11
Problematising language and European discourses
on multilingualism
  • 1 state 1 language (or maybe 2)
  • migrant languages are not languages of the
    host countries
  • unequal evaluation of multilingual competence
  • M 2 official national languages
  • citizens identified with these languages.

12
Problematising language and European discourses
on multilingualism
  • Language policies and political discourses on
    language perpetuate
  • the monolingual habitus of multilingual societies
    in Europe (after Gogolin)
  • the continuing power of standardising, national
    regimes that are reinforced sometimes at
    regional scales despite or because of European
    supranational agencies (Gal)

13
Implications for researching language a
sociolinguistics of globalisation
  • What are the important questions?
  • What kinds of methods are adequate for the task?
  • Questions about language policy
  • different levels of organisation
  • language ideologies and language policy
  • motivations, uses and outcomes of policy

14
Implications for researching language
  • Blommaert (2003) sociolinguistics of
    globalisation will need to explain the various
    forms of interconnectedness between levels and
    scales of sociolinguistic phenomena in order to
    understand properly what language achieves in
    peoples lives.
  • What might this mean in the present context?
  • What might an appropriate research agenda look
    like?

15
Implications for researching language
  • Research on global languages
  • World Englishes competing discourses
  • Global Spanish language spread from above and
    from below
  • Reshaping of language relationships and
    linguistic repertoires

16
Implications for researching language
  • Research on national languages
  • Language and space
  • National languages and language loyalty
  • Controlling the flow of migration

17
Implications for researching language
  • Emerging research agenda suggests
  • discrete categories not valid
  • need to assess impact of policy on experience
  • importance of different research methods.

18
Implications for researching language
  • Research questions might therefore include
  • How are relationships between different languages
    / language varieties in particular states or
    regions being re-arranged / restratified?
  • How are individual repertoires being re-ordered
    and what does this mean to people?
  • In what sense are these processes aspects of, or
    reactions to, globalisation?
  • How effective can the intervention of various
    mediating institutions at different levels be in
    influencing language behaviours in the context of
    apparently directionless flows (Hüppauf) of
    globalised practices?

19
Some current research projects
  • Language and Global Communication (Leverhulme)
  • DYLAN Language Dynamics and Management of
    Diversity (FP6)
  • LINEE Languages in a Network of European
    Excellence (FP6)
  • Testing Regimes Language, Migration and
    Citizenship (AHRC)

20
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26
The German Language and the Future of Europe
  • Overall aim
  • How is German invoked and promoted in support of
    different kinds of identification process in
    Central Europe?
  • Focus of projects
  • Language, migration and citizenship in Germany
  • Language, discourse and identity in CE

27
The German Language and the Future of Europe
  • Theme 1
  • Across Europe
  • Policies and discourses on migration framed by
    threats to national integrity language
    proficiency as gatekeeping tool.
  • In Germany
  • national-level politics and policy from above
  • local-level politics and policy from below

28
The German Language and the Future of Europe
  • National-level politics and policy from above
  • from Einwanderung to Zuwanderung Integration
  • Nationality Act 2000, Süssmuth Report 2001,
    Immigration Act 2005
  • proficiency in German as entitlement and
    obligation
  • Förderung and Forderung
  • language loyalty

29
The German Language and the Future of Europe
  • Local-level politics and policy from below
  • Herbert-Hoover-Schule The official language in
    our school is German, the official language of
    the Federal Republic of Germany. Within the area
    to which these regulations apply every student is
    obliged to communicate only in this language.
  • National debates and local relationships

30
The German Language and the Future of Europe
  • Theme 2
  • German in CE prestige ? denigration ? revival
  • Recontextualisation of relationship between
    languages/varieties and reordering of locally
    available repertoires new indexicality of
    linguistic forms.
  • Eurobarometer
  • English most widely used language in EU and
    most learned FL, but
  • German highest number of L1 speakers in EU and
    2nd most widely used language.
  • German in Hungary and Czech Republic.

31
The German Language and the Future of Europe
  • Exploring the stratigraphy of language policy and
    the relationship between public discourses and
    private practices in the commodification/
    evaluation of language
  • German foreign cultural policy
  • domestic cultural/ educational policy in
    neighbouring states
  • policy returned to private/personal sphere.

32
Conclusions
  • Problematising language
  • Language and national integrity
  • Questions about the place of language and
    language ideologies
  • Interconnectedness of levels and scales of
    sociolinguistic phenomena
  • How linguists may contribute to the conference
    theme
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Experiences with language in (central) Europe: citizenship and belonging

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Title: Experiences with language in (central) Europe: citizenship and belonging


1
Experiences with language in (central) Europe
citizenship and belonging
  • Patrick Stevenson
  • Centre for Transnational Studies
  • University of Southampton

2
Introduction
  • Conference themes where do linguists come in?
  • Linguistic nationalism then and now.
  • National languages and multilingual Europe.
  • Language questions within and across national
    borders.

3
Structure
  • 1 Problematising language and European
    discourses on multilingualism
  • 2 Implications for researching language a
    sociolinguistics of globalisation
  • 3 A selective survey of current research projects
  • 4 The German language and the future of Europe
  • 5 Conclusions the relevance of language to
    nationalism and national identities

4
Problematising language and European discourses
on multilingualism
  • Conceptual fuzziness of language.
  • Languages as European invention.
  • Convenient myths of linguistic homogeneity.
  • Advantages
  • inclusion and exclusion
  • mutual legitimisation of linguistic and national
    boundaries

5
Problematising language and European discourses
on multilingualism
  • Problems
  • Language names as portmanteau terms
  • Scope of languages arbitrary and contingent
  • Status as language not natural but ascribed
  • Preference therefore for linguistic varieties
    and linguistic practices, including
    metalinguistic practices.

6
Problematising language and European discourses
on multilingualism
  • Discrete, hierarchically ordered languages
    enduring European language ideology.
  • Privileged status of national languages in
    multilingual states.
  • The EU and the multilingual mantra.

7
Problematising language and European discourses
on multilingualism
  • Commissioner Orban (April 2007)
  • Multilingualism has been, from the very
    beginning, part of the genetic code of the
    European Union.
  • Framework Strategy for Multilingualism (2005)
  • target for every citizen to have
    practical skills in at least two languages in
    addition to his or her mother tongue.

8
Problematising language and European discourses
on multilingualism
  • Eurobarometer Special Report 243 (2006) Europeans
    and Their Languages
  • 99 of Luxembourgers
  • 29 of Hungarians
  • can participate in a conversation in another
    language than their mother tongue.
  • Monolingualism as natural condition.

9
Problematising language and European discourses
on multilingualism
  • Framework Strategy
  • places responsibility for developing policy with
    Member States
  • calls for national plans to give coherence and
    direction to actions to promote multilingualism
    and
  • concedes that the teaching of regional and
    minority languages should be taken into account
    as appropriate,
  • alongside opportunities for migrants to learn
    the language of the host country (and the
    teaching of migrant languages).

10
Problematising language and European discourses
on multilingualism
  • Commissioner for Multilingualisms political
    agenda for multilingualism key objectives
    include providing access to online information
    services and EU legislation to citizens in their
    own languages.
  • What seem to be the implications here?

11
Problematising language and European discourses
on multilingualism
  • 1 state 1 language (or maybe 2)
  • migrant languages are not languages of the
    host countries
  • unequal evaluation of multilingual competence
  • M 2 official national languages
  • citizens identified with these languages.

12
Problematising language and European discourses
on multilingualism
  • Language policies and political discourses on
    language perpetuate
  • the monolingual habitus of multilingual societies
    in Europe (after Gogolin)
  • the continuing power of standardising, national
    regimes that are reinforced sometimes at
    regional scales despite or because of European
    supranational agencies (Gal)

13
Implications for researching language a
sociolinguistics of globalisation
  • What are the important questions?
  • What kinds of methods are adequate for the task?
  • Questions about language policy
  • different levels of organisation
  • language ideologies and language policy
  • motivations, uses and outcomes of policy

14
Implications for researching language
  • Blommaert (2003) sociolinguistics of
    globalisation will need to explain the various
    forms of interconnectedness between levels and
    scales of sociolinguistic phenomena in order to
    understand properly what language achieves in
    peoples lives.
  • What might this mean in the present context?
  • What might an appropriate research agenda look
    like?

15
Implications for researching language
  • Research on global languages
  • World Englishes competing discourses
  • Global Spanish language spread from above and
    from below
  • Reshaping of language relationships and
    linguistic repertoires

16
Implications for researching language
  • Research on national languages
  • Language and space
  • National languages and language loyalty
  • Controlling the flow of migration

17
Implications for researching language
  • Emerging research agenda suggests
  • discrete categories not valid
  • need to assess impact of policy on experience
  • importance of different research methods.

18
Implications for researching language
  • Research questions might therefore include
  • How are relationships between different languages
    / language varieties in particular states or
    regions being re-arranged / restratified?
  • How are individual repertoires being re-ordered
    and what does this mean to people?
  • In what sense are these processes aspects of, or
    reactions to, globalisation?
  • How effective can the intervention of various
    mediating institutions at different levels be in
    influencing language behaviours in the context of
    apparently directionless flows (Hüppauf) of
    globalised practices?

19
Some current research projects
  • Language and Global Communication (Leverhulme)
  • DYLAN Language Dynamics and Management of
    Diversity (FP6)
  • LINEE Languages in a Network of European
    Excellence (FP6)
  • Testing Regimes Language, Migration and
    Citizenship (AHRC)

20
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21
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22
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23
(No Transcript)
24
(No Transcript)
25
(No Transcript)
26
The German Language and the Future of Europe
  • Overall aim
  • How is German invoked and promoted in support of
    different kinds of identification process in
    Central Europe?
  • Focus of projects
  • Language, migration and citizenship in Germany
  • Language, discourse and identity in CE

27
The German Language and the Future of Europe
  • Theme 1
  • Across Europe
  • Policies and discourses on migration framed by
    threats to national integrity language
    proficiency as gatekeeping tool.
  • In Germany
  • national-level politics and policy from above
  • local-level politics and policy from below

28
The German Language and the Future of Europe
  • National-level politics and policy from above
  • from Einwanderung to Zuwanderung Integration
  • Nationality Act 2000, Süssmuth Report 2001,
    Immigration Act 2005
  • proficiency in German as entitlement and
    obligation
  • Förderung and Forderung
  • language loyalty

29
The German Language and the Future of Europe
  • Local-level politics and policy from below
  • Herbert-Hoover-Schule The official language in
    our school is German, the official language of
    the Federal Republic of Germany. Within the area
    to which these regulations apply every student is
    obliged to communicate only in this language.
  • National debates and local relationships

30
The German Language and the Future of Europe
  • Theme 2
  • German in CE prestige ? denigration ? revival
  • Recontextualisation of relationship between
    languages/varieties and reordering of locally
    available repertoires new indexicality of
    linguistic forms.
  • Eurobarometer
  • English most widely used language in EU and
    most learned FL, but
  • German highest number of L1 speakers in EU and
    2nd most widely used language.
  • German in Hungary and Czech Republic.

31
The German Language and the Future of Europe
  • Exploring the stratigraphy of language policy and
    the relationship between public discourses and
    private practices in the commodification/
    evaluation of language
  • German foreign cultural policy
  • domestic cultural/ educational policy in
    neighbouring states
  • policy returned to private/personal sphere.

32
Conclusions
  • Problematising language
  • Language and national integrity
  • Questions about the place of language and
    language ideologies
  • Interconnectedness of levels and scales of
    sociolinguistic phenomena
  • How linguists may contribute to the conference
    theme
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