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Principles and Guidelines for Ecological Restoration in Canada


Title: Principles and Guidelines for Ecological Restoration in Canada s Protected Natural Areas Author: linda burr Last modified by: Donald McLennan – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Principles and Guidelines for Ecological Restoration in Canada

Dealing with Uncertainty Navigating Biodiversity
Change in Canadas Arctic National Parks
Arctic Biodiversity Symposium Museum of Nature,
Ottawa, November 2010
Torngat Mountains National Park, Labrador Photo
D. McLennan
  1. Parks Canada in the North
  2. Arctic climate change - synopsis
  3. Navigating biodiversity change - a proposed
    proactive adaption strategy for Arctic national
  4. A strategy for the Arctic?

  • Parks Canada Agency
  • one of most extensive systems of protected areas
    in the world.
  • protects and presents these treasures on behalf
    of Canadians
  • celebrating 125 years of natural heritage

On behalf of the people of Canada, we protect
and present nationally significant examples of
Canada's natural and cultural heritage and foster
public understanding, appreciation and enjoyment
in ways that ensure their ecological and
commemorative integrity for present and future
Protected Areas in the Canadian Arctic
  • Sirmilik NP
  • increased greening
  • increased productivity
  • permafrost slumping
  • lemming cycle dampening?

Analysis by Rob Fraser and Ian Olthof, CCRS
5-8 km/yr ??
Application of Lawler (2009) models by Katherine
Lindsay, EC
Synopsis Arctic Change
  • Arctic climate is changing rapidly
  • Arctic ecosystems are also responding, but much
    less rapidly
  • terrestrial physical environment showing
    important changes
  • biota less responsive mainly in situ
    productivity/relative dominance changes
  • How fast? What species? Species interactions?
    Disease? Species adaptation? Climate feedbacks? C
  • more questions than answers
  • monitoring and research to reduce uncertainty

Reducing Uncertainty A Model for Proactive
Adaptive Management
Focal watershed Ivatak Brook
Focal watershed Nachvak Brook
Mapping Ecological Integrity Biodiversity
Ecosystem process
Long Term Sites (Focal Ecosystems) Tundra/Wetland/Forest vegetation change (ITEX, surveys, structure, biomass) active layer (CALM) soil temperature snow small mammals songbirds (arthropods) Streams benthic inverts discharge water quality char/fish community Other Ground Measures Tundra/Wetland grizzly, fox, caribou, muskox, raptors, BBS, lemmings, plant phenology Lakes and Streams char/fish community, Harlequin ducks Coastal polar bears, coastal fish, shorebirds/waterfowl, raptors Remote Sensing ParkSPACE Measures land cover (ecotype/community) productivity (biomass and VIs) permafrost (NEST) lake and river ice coastal change glaciers (area, retreat, mass balance)
Ecotype Map Ivvavik NP
  • eastern boundary of Beringia unglaciated
  • most northerly forests in NA south facing
  • 28 ecotypes
  • important range for Porcupine Caribou Herd

Opportunities for Development
The Challenge
  • navigating the combined ecological effects of
    climate change and Northern development to
    foster social-ecological resilience and mitigate
    biodiversity loss
  • Success will depend a new kind of inclusive
    approach that coordinates and optimizes the
    efforts of all Northern actors.

An Arctic Model for Proactive Adaptive Management
Ongoing Arctic Monitoring Initiatives
  • Territories and Others
  • Federal
  • Parks Canada EI Monitoring
  • EC/MSC/WSC climate, water quantity and quality,
  • EC/CWS caribou, polar bears, migratory birds,
  • EC CBMP EMG Freshwater
  • DFO CBMP EMG Marine
  • Territories (INAC)
  • NWT - CIMP
  • Nunavut - NGMP
  • Communities
  • Arctic Borderlands
  • Sea Ice Nunavut
  • others
  • Industry
  • Akati Mines
  • Mackenzie gas pipeline
  • Academia
  • CEN
  • Arctic Net

Tundra Ecosystems Olthof et al. CCRS
Canadas Arctic and PAs
  • Arctic National Parks as INoRMs
  • Integrated Network of Research and Monitoring
  • baselines of Arctic ecological change
  • Focal Watersheds Model ecological inventories,
    long term monitoring sites, stream discharge,
    weather stations
  • sites for science
  • long term commitment to EI monitoring and
  • cooperative management with Indigenous partners
  • present in northern communities/ operational in
    the field
  • research logistical support transportation,

Canadian Arctic and Sub-Arctic Protected Areas
Northern ScienceBuild on IPY Momentum
  • world-leading science coordinated nationally and
    cooperating internationally
  • From Knowledge to Action IPY Montreal 2012
  • strong outreach/communication component
  • effective interaction with Arctic communities
  • legacy of young scientists to carry the torch

Keys to Success
  • Work together on pan-Arctic objectives set out in
    the Northern Strategy
  • Empower northern communities as a key component
    of the solution
  • Invest in a knowledge system to reduce
    uncertainty and understand change

An unknown future
Please Contact Donald McLennan Parks Canada
Agency 25 rue Eddy, Hull, QC, K1A0M5 Tel (819)
953 6464 email
working together for a common future
Science Management Support
  • Research Summaries
  • plain language summary of research results
  • implications for park management objectives
  • risks/benefits of acting/not acting
  • identify emerging issues
  • Process Models and Projections
  • scaled down climate models, weather projections
  • 5 15 year projections of ecosystem change
  • model monitoring/model improvements/model

The Role of Traditional Knowledge
  • There is now less snow fall and the only snow
    fall we get, the wind blows it away so it doesnt
    have time to build up and get compact. Now we
    just have very small snowdrifts. The snow drifts
    in the past were so big that the igloos were
    automatically half way built.
  •  Original in Inuktitut Inuit Knowledge

The Need to Collaborate Internationally
  • the circum-polar Arctic is one interconnected and
    interdependent ecosystem - need for cooperation
  • build on IPY progress and further increase
    circumpolar cooperation and collaboration (ITEX,
    PPS, seabirds, others)
  • SAON, IASC, and many other initiatives ongoing
  • broaden opportunities for science funding access
    to global expertise
  • CBMP links biodiversity monitoring Expert
    Monitoring Groups
  • Canada takes over Chair of Arctic Council next

ST Program
  • Extensive process to define ST priorities for
  • Scoping and synthesis papers
  • Visioning Workshop
  • International panel convened by Council of
    Canadian Academies

Canadian Visioning workshops proposed ST
priority themes
Sustainable resource development
Environmental science stewardship
Climate change
Healthy sustainable communities