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LAND ADMINISTRATION REFORM: MEETING PEOPLE

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land administration reform: meeting people s aspirations dr w. odame larbi project director ghana land administration project – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: LAND ADMINISTRATION REFORM: MEETING PEOPLE


1
LAND ADMINISTRATION REFORM MEETING PEOPLES
ASPIRATIONS
  • DR W. ODAME LARBI
  • PROJECT DIRECTOR
  • GHANA LAND ADMINISTRATION PROJECT

2
OUTLINE
  • Introduction
  • Land tenure and economic development
  • Overview of land ownership in Ghana
  • Land tenure constraints
  • The Ghana National Land Policy
  • The Ghana Land Administration Project
  • Challenges in implementation of the Project
  • Conclusion

3
INTRODUCTION
  • Efficient land tenure systems are recognised as
    key to socio-economic development in developing
    countries
  • Many countries are embarking on various reform
    initiatives
  • Ghana is one of the countries pursuing reforms

4
LAND TENURE AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
  • Land is a key asset for economic activities of
    the poor
  • Provides better access to credit
  • Secured rights key for households asset
    ownership
  • Poorly defined property rights is expensive in
    enforcement

5
Land Tenure and Econ Devt
  • Agriculture contributes significantly to economic
    growth of Ghana Contributes 38 of GDP
  • Employs 45 of the active population
  • Employs 60 of rural labour force
  • Accounts for 75 of export earnings
  • Contributes 90 of food needs
  • Land issues have featured in major economic
    development programmes
  • Ghana Vision 2020
  • GPRS I
  • GPRS II
  • Multi-Donor Budget Support (MDBS)
  • Millennium Challenge Account (MCA/MiDA)
  • Problems always identified but minimal solutions

6
OVERVIEW OF LAND OWNERSHIP IN GHANA
  • Customary lands (78) include Stool/skin lands,
    clan lands, family lands etc.
  • State lands 20
  • Vested lands (split ownership) 2

7
LAND TENURE CONSTRAINTS
  • Weak land administration system characterised by
    fragmented institutions
  • General indiscipline in the land market
  • Indeterminate boundaries of customary owned lands
    stools, skins, families, etc.
  • Outstanding issues from compulsory acquisition of
    large tracts of land
  • Lack of consultation with landowners
  • Lack of consultation, coordination and
    cooperation among public sector land agencies
  • Ad hoc approaches to solving the land constraints

8
Land tenure constraints
  • RESULTS
  • Inadequate security of tenure
  • Loss of livelihoods
  • Difficult accessibility to land
  • Confusion over ownership of some lands
  • Tension between the state and customary
    authorities

9
THE GHANA NATIONAL LAND POLICY
  • Formulated through participatory processes over a
    period of 5 years (1994 1999)
  • Consultations with traditional authorities,
    farmers organisations, academia, public sector
    institutions, researchers, govt authorities, etc.
  • National workshop in 1997
  • The first comprehensive approach at dealing with
    the land tenure constraints

10
National Land Policy - Goal
  • Overall long-term goal is to stimulate economic
    development, reduce poverty and promote social
    stability by improving security of land tenure,
    simplifying the process for accessing land and
    making it fair, transparent and efficient,
    developing the land market and fostering prudent
    land management practices.

11
National Land Policy - Objectives
  • Ensure the maintenance of Ghanas international
    boundaries
  • Ensure proper management of shared water bodies
    for mutual benefit
  • Ensure consistency of socio-economic activities
    with sound land use planning
  • Facilitate equitable access to land
  • Protect land owners and their descendants from
    becoming landless
  • Ensure prompt payment of compensation for
    compulsorily acquired lands
  • Instill discipline and order into the land market

12
National Land Policy Objectives
  • Minimise and where possible eliminate land
    boundary disputes
  • Create and maintain effective institutional
    capacity at national, regional, district and
    community levels
  • Promote community participation and public
    awareness in sustainable land management
  • Promote research
  • Ensure continuous public education on land
    matters

13
National Land Policy Intervention areas
  • Securing Ghanas international boundaries and
    shared water resources
  • Facilitating equitable access to land
  • Security of tenure and protection of land rights
  • Ensuring sustainable land use
  • Human resource development

14
THE LAND ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM
  • LONG TERM OBJECTIVES
  • To reduce poverty and enhance social and economic
    growth
  • Improving security of tenure
  • Simplifying processes of land acquisition
  • Fostering prudent land management practices
  • Developing the land market
  • Establishing an efficient and sustainable system
    of land administration, both state and customary
  • Based on clear, coherent, and consistent polices
    and laws supported by appropriate institutional
    structures
  • Implementation in five-year phases over 15-25
    years

15
THE LAND ADMINISTRATION PROJECT (LAP-1)
  • LAP-1 is from 2004 2008
  • Objective is to lay the foundation for the
    establishment of a self-sustaining land
    administration system that is fair, efficient,
    decentralised, transparent, cost effective and
    capable of enhancing land tenure security.
  • Four Components
  • Harmonizing land policy and regulatory framework
  • Institutional Reform and development
  • Improving Land titling, Registration, Valuation,
    Land Use Planning and Land information system
  • Project Management, Human Resource Development
    and Monitoring and Evaluation

16
PROGRESS IN IMPLEMENTATION
  • All laws on land (ownership, tenure,
    administration, etc) reviewed by consultants and
    proposals made for consolidation and update
  • Cabinet approval for all laws to be consolidated
    into two one for institutional reforms and the
    other for a new land act
  • A new Lands Commission Act drafted and public
    consultations begun
  • Cabinet approval for dealing with outstanding
    issues of compulsory acquisition
  • Inventory of all state acquired/occupied lands
    completed in one administrative region
  • Inventory of backlog of land cases in the courts
    completed

17
Progress in implementation
  • Institutional reform proposals submitted and
    approved by Cabinet
  • 10 customary land secretariats established/strengt
    hened to improve customary land administration
  • Private sector surveyors trained in modern
    surveying techniques using DPT
  • Four Land Registries established to decentralise
    land registration services
  • 4257 deeds registered over one year

18
Deeds Registered
REGISTRY REGION DOCUMENTS REGISTERED DOCUMENTS REGISTERED DOCUMENTS REGISTERED DOCUMENTS REGISTERED DOCUMENTS REGISTERED
REGISTRY REGION MALE FEMALE JOINT OWN CORPORATE TOTAL
Sekondi Western 545 153 70 110 878
Sekondi Central 225 110 51 55 441
Kdua Eastern 707 309 171 141 1328
Kdua Volta 180 68 20 33 301
Sunyani B.A. 254 78 11 85 428
Tamale Northern 131 39 8 64 242
Tamale UER 236 69 15 21 341
Tamale UWR 224 45 5 24 298
TOTAL 2302 871 351 533 4257
19
INTERMEDIATE OUTCOMES
  • Reduced turn around time in deed registration
    (from gt36 months to 7 months)
  • Reduced transaction costs
  • 20.5 of deeds registered belonged to women
  • 8.2 of deeds registered in joint ownership

20
CHALLENGES
  • Harmonisation in a plural environment
  • Power play and change management
  • Land administration reform as against Land tenure
    reform
  • Participation
  • Policy debates
  • Management of stool land revenue
  • Gender dimensions of reforms
  • Rights of foreigners to acquire property
  • Donor coordination

21
LESSONS LEARNT
  • Assumptions underlying land administration
    reforms must be well tested.
  • Champions for reforms among key stakeholders must
    be sought for before implementation.
  • Smaller and easy to handle projects might be
    better option than holding the bull by the horn
    all at once.
  • Communication and managing expectations of
    stakeholders are absolutely essential.
  • The implementation of complex reform projects as
    civil service mainstream activity, must be
    carefully weighed.

22
CONCLUSION
  • The processes and objectives of the land
    administration reform have been appropriately set
    within the broader context of promoting economic
    growth and measures to alleviate poverty.
  • Its implementation nevertheless calls for a lot
    of innovation and drive as well as flexibility,
    which sometimes mainstream civil service
    procedures do not allow.
  • The program as designed meets the aspirations of
    the people subject to continued political
    commitment and leadership.

23
  • Thank you for your attention.
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