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NERVOUS SYSTEM

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NERVOUS SYSTEM CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS) Brain Spinal Cord PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Cranial & Spinal Nerves Somatic-- supplies the skeletal muscles & skin – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: NERVOUS SYSTEM


1
NERVOUS SYSTEM
CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (CNS)
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
Cranial Spinal Nerves
Somatic
-- supplies the skeletal muscles skin
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)
-- supplies smooth muscles, cardiac, glands
2
NEURON
-- structural unit of the nervous system
-- conducts impulse towards the cell body
-- contains the nucleus
3
Nervous tissue contain cells called Neuroglial
(glial)
-- supply nutrients
-- cleans up debris
4
Nodes of Ranvier
-- are bare spots where myelin is not present
Synapse or Synaptic Cleft

5
TYPES OF NEURONS
found only in the CNS can be sensory or motor
6
NEUROTRANSMITTERS
Others
7
SPINAL CORD
2. It is an area of reflex activity
Spinal Tracts are nerve fibers in the cord
8
Spinal Roots
Ventral Root -- carries motor signals
Dorsal Root -- carries sensory signals
-- Areas where roots combine
Cervical
Brachial
Lumbosacral
9
CEREBRUM
-- contains 2 hemispheres ( right left)
Thalamus Hypothalamus together is called the
Diencephalon
10
1. Body Temperature
2. Some emotions, such as fear pleasure
4. Control of the Pituitary gland
5. Water balance
6. Appetite
7. Sleep
8. Center for mind over body phenomena
11
Cerebral Cortex (Cerebrum)
--tissues of the brain are convoluted
Major Functions
1. Sensory perception
2. Voluntary control of movement
3. Language
4. Personality Traits
5. Sophisticated mental events
12
Lobes of the Brain
-- thought association
-- judgement
-- discrimination
-- control of skeletal muscles
(damage to this area causes APHASIA)
13
-- responsible for vision
-- combining visual images
14
BRAIN STEM
-- helps to regulate breathing along with the
Medulla
15
1. Respiratory Center
2. Cardiac Center
-- regulates rate force of the heart beat
3. Vasomotor Center
16
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17
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18
CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT (CVA)
-- also called a Stroke
-- may be due to a blood clot or broken blood
vessel
ISCHEMIA
19
Central Nervous System is protected by
1. Skull vertebrae
2. Meninges
-- middle web-like covering
20
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Pathway
Lateral ventricle
Foramen of Munro
Third ventricle
Aqueduct of Sylvius
Fourth ventricle
into the subarachnoid space
21
CRANIAL NERVES
I. Olfactory
Smell
Sensory
II. Optic
Sight
Sensory
III. Oculomotor
Controls eye muscles
Motor
IV. Trochlear
Supplies one eye muscle
Motor
Both
V. Trigeminal
22
VI. Abducen
Motor
VII. Facial
Both
VIII. Vestibulocochlear
Sensory
IX. Glossopharyngeal
Both
muscles for swallowing
23
X. Vagus
Both
XI. Spinal Accessory
Motor
XII. Hypoglossal
Motor
24
AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (ANS)
-- part of the Peripheral Nervous System
Sympathetic
Parasympathetic
25
Function of the Sympathetic Parasympathetic
Nervous Systems
versus
26
FUNCTIONS OF THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM
SYMPATHETIC RESPONSE ORGAN
PARASYMPATHETIC RESPONSE Increase rate
HEART
Decrease rate (to normal) Dilate
BRONCHIOLES
Constrict (to normal)
(Smooth
muscle) Pupils dilate
IRIS Pupils
constrict (to normal) Decrease secretion
SALIVARY GLANDS Increase
secretion (to

normal) Decrease
peristalsis STOMACH INTESTINES
Increase peristalsis for
(Smooth muscle)
normal digestion Decrease
secretion STOMACH INTESTINES
Increase secretion for
(Glands)
normal digestion Contracts
to prevent INTERNAL ANAL
Relaxes to permit defecation defecation
SPHINCTER Relaxes to
prevent URINARY BLADDER
Contracts for normal urination

urination
27
Fight or Flight Syndrome
-- increases heart rate,
respiratory rate,
dilates pupils
28
-- Like the gas pedal and a brake on a car
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