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Position of women in society and labour market


Position of women in society and labour market Case study: Bulgaria General data on the position of women in the society Political tradition, Constitutional rights ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Position of women in society and labour market

Position of women in society and labour market
  • Case study Bulgaria

General data on the position of women in the
  • Political tradition, Constitutional rights
  • Tarnovo Constitution 1879- passive voting right
    for the women
  • The Constitution from 1947 active and passive
    voting right for all over 18 years of age
    Chapter of basic rights and duties proclaims the
    equality between men and women- par.2 of art.72
    to the right to work, payment for equal work,
    right to repose, right to social insurance,
    pension and education special protection for
    working women- mothers and child-care provisions,
    kindergartens, paid maternity leave

Political tradition, constitutional rights-
  • The Constitution from 1971 reaffirming the
    voting rights, as well the special protection for
    working women
  • The Constitution from 1991 reaffirming the
    political and voting rights for women
  • Working rights, art. 48, par.1
  • Ratified ILO Conventions in gender area C100-
    equal remuneration C111 against discrimination
    in occupation and professions C183 on motherhood
    protection UN Convention on elimination for all
    forms of discrimination against women, 1979

Special protective rights
  • In case of motherhood In Labour Code- 365 days
    paid leave before -45 days and after birth, 2
    years paid leave 1 year unpaid 3 years
    recognition of service child allowances are
    still very low
  • In a case of pregnancy Labour Code- protective
    working environment also breastfeeding
    regulations, but problems in implementation
    because of transformation of labour market

Gender Statistics
  • Demography 51,6 women share in the population
    (7 801 300, 2003)
  • Birth rate last position in the world according
    the World Bank report April 2005 8 new born at
    1000 minus 8,7 growth rate difference betw.
    births and dead per 1000 people /2003/ 1,42
    child average in family, 2008 at the same time
    the highest rate in CEE for children born outside
    the wedlock- 50,2 in 2008 due to some ethnic
    specifics and new forms of living in a household
  • GNP per capita from 1985 till 2001 trend minus
    12,6, 217 USD per person in 2001 but 2005 trend
    to growth of 5,7 feminization of poverty- alone
    living elder pensioners, single mothers, disabled
    women, ethnic groups, women in the border areas

Statistics- gender
  • 60,8 of all population is in the working age
  • Structure of the working force 53,1 men, 49,9
    female. 54,3 coefficient of employment 53,0
    men, 47 women (MLSP 2004) coefficient of
    economic activity of women 62,1 in 2008
  • Unemployment rate 12,1 for the first 9 months
    2004, 54,7 are women, for women higher in the
    age group 24-34 and after 45 years 15.9 and
    13,8 (2003, NSI) in 1993 -21,4 unemployed in
    2003- 15,3
  • Wage pay gap women gain 80-87 of the mens
    salaries 2004-2008 13-15 lower of the mens
    payments impact on the pensions
  • Employment sectors for women education- 81,1
    health care- 80,2, financial services/agencies
    71,6 about 55 of all employed in the services
    are women

Position of women in the labour market
  • Decreasing tendency Index of economic activity-
    IEA and Index of employment IE
  • For men IEA drops with 7,2 for 10 years period
    from 60.5 in 1993 to 53.3 in 2003
  • For women IEA of 11 decreases from 55.5 in
    1993 to 44.1 in 2003

Specific problems for women in labour
  • Access for young women in the age group 25-34 to
    jobs- dilemma to choose between a job and family
    employers participation in enforcement of legally
    binding rights is required
  • The age group over 45 years most problematic

Social assistance for women
  • Childrens allowances- very low after the age of
    2 of the child 10 Euro a month dependent on the
    income of family (110 euro per person)
  • Decreasing number of kindergartens- only 6 of
    1000 children are visiting before the age of 6
    traditional model of raising children at home
    (grandmothers, daily care mothers) private
    kitas community financed- fees to high for some
  • General cuts in social expenditures in the state
    budget mostly reflects single mothers with
    small children

Labour market statistics- women
  • Coefficient of unemployment for 2008- 6,31
  • Coefficient of unemployment for women in 2007 is
    7,3 6,6 for men
  • Coefficient of economic activity of women is
    62,1 2007 70,6 for men
  • Coefficient of long-term unemployed women is 4,5
    2007 3,7 of men
  • The education level of the women is high /share
    of women amongst the persons with high education
    is 52,5 /2005/

Summary, main problems of working women
  • Still low the coefficient of employment for women
  • Existing horizontal and vertical segregation on
    gender on the labour market
  • Pay gap decreasing, but still existing
  • The women are frequently affected by the
    unemployment than men
  • The poverty is feminised the women stay long
    term in poverty than the men bcs. of the lower
    salaries and later on lower pensions the old
    women, single mothers and women from some ethnic
    groups are highly exposed to social exclusion and
  • The women in Bulgaria are not willing to work
    part-time bcs. of the lower payment and of the
    insufficient number of offers for that kind of
    jobs on the labour market

Summary, main problems of working women
  • The women in Bulgaria hardly reconcile the
    professional, personal and family life
  • The women of ethnic groups /Roma, Moslems/, the
    women in small town and villages are more often
    exposed to the home violence
  • The problems of the young women are not on the
    Agenda of the society
  • The participation of women in politics and in
    decision making is still low 22 in the
    Parliament 9 women are mayors women in the
    local parliaments/governments are 22
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