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The Spanish subjunctive, an introduction

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In this chapter, you will learn about the subjunctive mode. It is used to ... Yo quiero que Juan vaya a la fiesta. main clause subordinate clause S1 V1 S2 V2 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Spanish subjunctive, an introduction


1
The Spanish Subjunctive An Introduction
(El subjuntivo español una introducción)
Quiero que Ud. pase por el Control de Agricultura.
2
The Spanish Subjunctive
Until now, you have been using verb tenses
(present, preterit, and imperfect) in the
indicative mood (or mode). The indicative is
used to express real, definite, or factual
actions or states of being.
In this chapter, you will learn about the
subjunctive mode. It is used to express the
hypothetical or subjective, such as a speakers
attitudes, wishes, feelings, emotions, or doubts.
Unlike the indicative, which states facts, the
subjunctive describes reality subjectively, or
refers to actions or states that are not yet
reality at all (and maybe never will be).
3
The forms of the subjunctive
Step 1 Start with the yo form of the verb in the
present tense (this applies to all three
conjugations)
hablo
como
vivo
If we are careful to begin with this step, verbs
with irregular stems and yo forms will be
included and will not be considered irregular in
the subjunctive
conocer ? conozco
oír ? oigo
tener ? tengo
decir ? digo
pedir ? pido
traer ? traigo
dormir ? duermo
perder ? pierdo
venir ? vengo
hacer ? hago
querer ? quiero
ver ? veo
4
The forms of the subjunctive
Step 2 Take off the final o of the yo form
habl
com
viv
o
o
o
Step 3 Add the opposite endings
For -ar verbs Add -er verb endings.
habl
habl
e
emos
habl
habl
es
éis
habl
habl
e
en
Notice that the first- and third-person singular
forms are identical.
5
The forms of the subjunctive
Step 3 Add the opposite endings
For -er and -ir verbs Add -ar verb endings to
both.
com
com
a
amos
com
com
as
áis
com
com
a
an
viv
viv
a
amos
viv
viv
as
áis
viv
viv
a
an
Again, first- and third-person singular forms are
identical.
6
The forms of the subjunctive
The following spelling changes occur in all forms
of the present subjunctive with verbs whose
infinitives end in -car, -gar, and -zar.
-car c ? qu
-gar g ? gu
-zar z ? c
buscar
llegar
empezar
busque
llegue
empiece
busques
llegues
empieces
busque
llegue
empiece
busquemos
lleguemos
empecemos
busquéis
lleguéis
empecéis
busquen
lleguen
empiecen
7
The forms of the subjunctive
There are only six truly irregular verbs, that
is, verbs to which we cannot apply our three-step
process.
When listed in the following order, the initial
letters of each verb form the acronym DISHES, a
useful memory device.
dé, des, dé, demos, deis, den
Dar ? Ir ? Ser ? Haber ? Estar ? Saber ?
vaya, vayas, vaya, vayamos, vayáis, vayan
sea, seas, sea, seamos, seáis, sean
haya, hayas, haya, hayamos, hayáis, hayan
esté, estés, esté, estemos, estéis, estén
sepa, sepas, sepa, sepamos, sepáis, sepan
8
The usage of the subjunctive
The subjunctive normally occurs in the
subordinate clause of a two-part sentence (hence
the term subjunctive) and generally is preceded
by the relator que or an adverb such as cuando,
donde, etc.
Normally, the main clause has a different subject
and verb than the subordinate clause.
main clause
subordinate clause
Yo quiero que Juan vaya a la fiesta.
S1
V1
S2
V2
9
The usage of the subjunctive
If there is no change of subject, that is, if the
subject of the main clause is the same as that of
the subordinate clause, the subjunctive is
generally not used, especially with verbs of
volition, such as querer, and verbs that express
emotion.
main clause
subordinate clause
Yo quiero que yo vaya a la fiesta.
S1
V1
S1
V2
Although there are two different verbs . . .
. . . there is only one subject.
10
The usage of the subjunctive
If there is no change of subject, that is, if the
subject of the main clause is the same as that of
the subordinate clause, the subjunctive is
generally not used, especially with verbs of
volition, such as querer, and verbs that express
emotion.
In these cases only one clause is necessary . . .
Yo quiero ir a la fiesta.
S
AV
INF
. . . utilizing a subject,
auxiliary verb,
and infinitive.
11
The usage of the subjunctive
The verb or expression in the main clause
determines whether to use the subjunctive or the
indicative in the subordinate clause.
Three simple principles can be applied in almost
every case.
If the main clause expresses . . .
1. Cause or prevention.
2. Personal bias or emotion.
3. Falseness or unreality.
. . . the subjunctive is used in the subordinate
clause.
12
The usage of the subjunctive
1. Cause or prevention When the subject in the
main clause uses a verb that tends to cause or
prevent something in the subordinate clause, the
subjunctive is always used in the subordinate
clause.
(Notice that que unites the two clauses.)
  • Benjamín quiere que Antonio ponga la mesa.

(indicative pone)
  • Yo insisto en que tú hagas el trabajo.

(indicative haces)
  • Prohibimos que los clientes fumen en la oficina.

(indicative fuman)
13
The usage of the subjunctive
Following are some common verbs and expressions
that might be used to cause or prevent.
  • Cause
  • querer insistir recomendar mandar
  • pedir permitir aconsejar obligar
  • necesitar sugerir
  • ser importante, imprescindible, permisible,
    necesario, innecesario, preferible, mejor,
    urgente
  • Prevention
  • impedir prohibir no permitir

14
The usage of the subjunctive
2. Personal bias or emotion When the verb in
the main clause expresses a feeling, emotion, or
personal bias, the subjunctive is usually (but
not always) used in the subordinate clause.
  • Me alegro de que tú saques buenas notas.

(indicative sacas)
  • Qué lástima que ellos no sepan su número de
    teléfono!

(indicative saben)
  • Lamento que hayas perdido tu dinero.

(indicative has perdido)
  • Me gusta que Alfredo te ayude.

(indicative ayuda)
15
The usage of the subjunctive
But, once more, if there is no change of subject,
one clause with an infinitive can be used in many
cases.
  • No estoy seguro de tener mi pasaporte.

(No estoy seguro de que yo tenga mi pasaporte.)
  • No creo saber la verdad.

(No creo que yo sepa la verdad.)
  • Dudo poder pilotear el avión.

(Dudo que yo pueda pilotear el avión.)
16
The usage of the subjunctive
Following are some common verbs and expressions
that express truth or falseness.
  • Truth
  • creer estar seguro jurar
  • afirmar confirmar asegurar
  • ser cierto ser indudable ser evidente
  • ser obvio ser verdad ser (estar) claro
  • Falseness
  • no creer negar no estar seguro
  • dudar no poder creer
  • ser (im)posible ser (im)probable
  • no ser verdad no ser cierto

17
The usage of the subjunctive
Finally, the subjunctive is always used after the
following phrases (and a few other similar ones).
When listed in the order shown below, they form
the acronym ESCAPA, a useful memory device.
E
en caso de que
(in case)
S
sin que
(without, unless)
con tal (de) que
(provided that)
C
antes (de) que
(before)
A
(so that, in order that)
P
para que
a menos que
A
(unless)
18
FIN
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