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AICE: International World History 1945 - 1991

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Title: Soviet Comintern Author: Kevin Sacerdote Last modified by: DCPS Created Date: 10/13/2007 3:09:02 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AICE: International World History 1945 - 1991


1
AICE International World History 1945 - 1991
  • Kevin Sacerdote
  • Mandarin High School
  • Jacksonville, FL 32258
  • sacerdotek_at_duvalschools.org

2
Soviet Comintern
  • Soviet Intentions in the Third World
  • Source The Global Cold War Third World
    Interventions and the Making of Our Times, by Odd
    Arne Westad (Cambridge University Press, 2007.
    ISBN 978-0-521-70314-7)

3
Communist International Comintern est. 1919
  • World-wide Organization
  • Headquartered in Moscow
  • All Workers Parties invited to join
  • Lenin Bolshevize all Socialist Parties
  • The Vehicle through which the Communists would
    set off rebellions in the Third World

4
Comintern the Third World
  • The Russian Revolution was a signal
  • It succeeded, and the Bolsheviks promised to help
    others
  • By the 1920s Communist parties were in major
    Third World states China, India, Indonesia,
    Turkey, and Iran (Foreign Aid anyone?)
  • Imperialism was an inevitable outgrowth of
    industrial capitalism in its advanced stages of
    development (Keylor, A World of Nations, p. 73)

5
Trotskys Permanent Revolution
  • Capitalist stage could be very brief before the
    proletariat uprising
  • Stalin disagreed, the capitalist stage had to be
    fully-fledged
  • Stalin backs the Chinese KMT Right
  • Did Stalin really want the Chinese to go through
    a real capitalist state before the revolution, or
    did he fear a unified China of any kind?

6
Soviet Communisms Myth
  • 1917 a workers revolution was carried out by an
    advanced group that represented the entire
    proletariat. Advanced is the key, not numbers
  • But how long had there been a bourgeois state in
    Russia? Gradual growth since 1905? (full-fledged
    historical progression?)
  • Permanent revolution or organizational skills of
    Lenins Bolsheviks?

7
Stalin (Vozhd/Boss) and World Revolution
  • He never completely gave up on Lenins faith in
    backward countries being able to make a quick
    transition, but
  • He used the non-skipping of historical stages
    to explain Communist setbacks in the Third World,
    especially between 1929-1936

8
Bolshevization Idea
  • Backfires in many countries
  • Parties in other countries are marginalized
  • Often excluded from mainstream organizations
  • Told to form their own party

9
19th Century Marxism
  • Concentrates its analysis and predictions on
    Europe and America
  • Little energy spent on non-capitalist states
  • Marx saw the world as organized in a hierarchy of
    development

10
Marx and the Third World
  • Asiatic mode of production Semi-barbarian
    Societies
  • Isolated, Peasant-based
  • Connected to a Despotic Inefficient State
  • Social System led to an Undignified, Stagnatory,
    and Vegetative Life
  • Imperialism, in this case, was an agent of
    progress according to Karl Marx

11
Lenins Imperialism The Highest State of
Capitalism
  • Circa 1917
  • The scramble for Africa (1870-1914) accelerated
    capitalist decay
  • By 1955, the political situation in Europe
    stabilized, and emancipation from European
    colonial domination was starting to come to an
    end for many non-white lands in Asia/Africa
  • Calls for world workers to unite, regardless of
    what stage they were in

12
Mongolia
  • First opportunity the Bolsheviks got to implement
    their credo outside its borders
  • The testing ground for much of communist policy
    in the Third World
  • Methods of education, cultural work,
    collectivization, and antireligious propaganda

13
Stalins Third World Adventures
  • Turkey, Iran, China, and Korea

14
Soviet Foreign Policy
  • German Attack 1941
  • Soviet foreign policy is redirected
  • Stalin does not want to anger the USA
  • USSR is afraid of the Allies forming a separate
    peace with Germany
  • Separate Peace Treaties would leave the USSR to
    fight Germany alone

15
Stalins Orders to Communist Parties Throughout
the World
  • Do Not antagonize
  • Feels the UK and USA would feud over the spoils,
    he is wrong
  • Fears a unified, unipolar capitalist world under
    the watch of the USA
  • Wants Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania,
    and Bulgaria as a security belt

16
Turkey
  • Sees no hope for revolution
  • Dominance of Turkish Bourgeois Nationalism the
    USA is watching
  • Would like it for security, control of the Black
    Sea entrance, air and naval bases
  • Not worth the risk

17
Iran
  • Soviets biggest southern neighbor
  • 1941 Allied agreement, USSR would occupy Northern
    Iran, Britain Southern Iran
  • British help oust the Shah Pahlavi (leaning
    towards Hitler)
  • The Shahs son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi replaces him

18
Iran
  • Foreign occupation had thrown the door open for
    new political groups
  • Tudeh Led by Communists, it was the largest and
    best organized
  • Others such as ethnic minorities Azeris, Kurds,
    and Arabs (Iran is Persian) are organizing

19
Iran
  • Additionally, in Qum- Irans leading religious
    center- Ruhollah Khomeini and others call for
    independence
  • 1943 Majlis Election shows strong support for the
    liberal and leftists leaders
  • Examples include Ahmed Qavam (73 years old) and
    Mohammad Mossadeq

20
Iran
  • Tudeh sends messages to Stalin
  • They want an immediate revolution
  • Stalin strongly disagrees
  • By following Stalins orders does the party
    miss out on the correct timing for revolt?
  • Stalin wants a piece of the Oil, bases, and does
    not want to jeopardize his chances

21
Iran
  • Stalin turns to using northern ethnic separatists
    rather than Iranian Communists to reach his aims
  • He plans with Soviet Azerbaijan leader Mir
    Bagirov to organize a movement
  • Stalin could either work with him for oil, or
    tell Tehran hed help put it down for oil
    concessions

22
Iran
  • Elites realize that there was danger with the
    USSR, turn to Ahmad Qavam (76 yr. old land owner)
    to become the Prime Minister
  • Qavam and the USSR go back and forth and
    eventually Qavam asks for American assistance
  • May 1946, the Soviets leave Iran.. no oil deal.
    By the end of 1946 the shahs army retook the
    north
  • Terrible revenge on the Azeri and Kurdish
    separatists, Qavam dismissed as PM (Dec. 1947)

23
China
  • Mao, unlike Tudeh, does NOT follow the detailed
    instructions of Stalin
  • Mao ignores Stalins wish for him to make peace
    with the KMT
  • By 1948, KMT armies were now weak, and were
    losing the American money and interest
  • 1948-49 Mao prepares to push to Southern China

24
Korea
  • Stalins last Third World adventure
  • He reluctantly backs Kim Il Sung
  • Soviet involvement was revenge for the US
    behavior in Germany, Europe, the Balkans, the
    Middle East and especially the decision to form
    N.A.T.O.

25
Prime Reason for Soviet Involvement in the 3rd
World
  • Under Stalin, Third World Communism had to serve
    Soviet purposes in the global Cold War
  • It seems as if Stalin - having started the climb
    toward Socialism in One Country - was
    deliberately kicking away the ladder for others
    to follow

26
China
  • 1949-50, Stalin is uncertain about the future of
    Maos Communism
  • Stalin signs a treaty conducive to Soviet
    security, NOT a true alliance between two
    Communist-run states
  • Even after the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship,
    Alliance, and Mutual Assistance (Feb. 14, 1950)
    Stalin is still not sure about Mao
  • Stalins previous backingof the KMT and this are
    seeds for the upcoming Sino/Soviet split

27
Soviet Rediscovery of the Third World
  • 1955 - 1960
  • Khrushchev and the Politburos New Policies

28
Khrushchev and the Politburos New Policies
  • Travel to India, Burma, Beijing, and Afghanistan
  • No armed intervention
  • Cooperate with the national development of
    non-socialist countries of the Third World
    (economic and military)
  • Enemy was colonialism and imperialism

29
Khrushchev Attacks Stalin
  • 20th Party Congress - 1956
  • He neglected the Third World
  • Assistance to Workers Parties was necessary
  • The Soviets had

30
1951 - Last known in-depth Stalin statement on
3rd World problems
  • Indonesia He criticized the Communist party
    there, Indonesia represents a group of islands
    encircled by seas, and the Indonesian comrades
    could not lean anywhere (China had the USSR at
    their back)
  • What was his motive for such a statement?

31
  • I love you daddy
  • LOVE JULIE
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