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AICE: International World History 1945 - 1991


Title: Soviet Comintern Author: Kevin Sacerdote Last modified by: DCPS Created Date: 10/13/2007 3:09:02 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AICE: International World History 1945 - 1991

AICE International World History 1945 - 1991
  • Kevin Sacerdote
  • Mandarin High School
  • Jacksonville, FL 32258

Soviet Comintern
  • Soviet Intentions in the Third World
  • Source The Global Cold War Third World
    Interventions and the Making of Our Times, by Odd
    Arne Westad (Cambridge University Press, 2007.
    ISBN 978-0-521-70314-7)

Communist International Comintern est. 1919
  • World-wide Organization
  • Headquartered in Moscow
  • All Workers Parties invited to join
  • Lenin Bolshevize all Socialist Parties
  • The Vehicle through which the Communists would
    set off rebellions in the Third World

Comintern the Third World
  • The Russian Revolution was a signal
  • It succeeded, and the Bolsheviks promised to help
  • By the 1920s Communist parties were in major
    Third World states China, India, Indonesia,
    Turkey, and Iran (Foreign Aid anyone?)
  • Imperialism was an inevitable outgrowth of
    industrial capitalism in its advanced stages of
    development (Keylor, A World of Nations, p. 73)

Trotskys Permanent Revolution
  • Capitalist stage could be very brief before the
    proletariat uprising
  • Stalin disagreed, the capitalist stage had to be
  • Stalin backs the Chinese KMT Right
  • Did Stalin really want the Chinese to go through
    a real capitalist state before the revolution, or
    did he fear a unified China of any kind?

Soviet Communisms Myth
  • 1917 a workers revolution was carried out by an
    advanced group that represented the entire
    proletariat. Advanced is the key, not numbers
  • But how long had there been a bourgeois state in
    Russia? Gradual growth since 1905? (full-fledged
    historical progression?)
  • Permanent revolution or organizational skills of
    Lenins Bolsheviks?

Stalin (Vozhd/Boss) and World Revolution
  • He never completely gave up on Lenins faith in
    backward countries being able to make a quick
    transition, but
  • He used the non-skipping of historical stages
    to explain Communist setbacks in the Third World,
    especially between 1929-1936

Bolshevization Idea
  • Backfires in many countries
  • Parties in other countries are marginalized
  • Often excluded from mainstream organizations
  • Told to form their own party

19th Century Marxism
  • Concentrates its analysis and predictions on
    Europe and America
  • Little energy spent on non-capitalist states
  • Marx saw the world as organized in a hierarchy of

Marx and the Third World
  • Asiatic mode of production Semi-barbarian
  • Isolated, Peasant-based
  • Connected to a Despotic Inefficient State
  • Social System led to an Undignified, Stagnatory,
    and Vegetative Life
  • Imperialism, in this case, was an agent of
    progress according to Karl Marx

Lenins Imperialism The Highest State of
  • Circa 1917
  • The scramble for Africa (1870-1914) accelerated
    capitalist decay
  • By 1955, the political situation in Europe
    stabilized, and emancipation from European
    colonial domination was starting to come to an
    end for many non-white lands in Asia/Africa
  • Calls for world workers to unite, regardless of
    what stage they were in

  • First opportunity the Bolsheviks got to implement
    their credo outside its borders
  • The testing ground for much of communist policy
    in the Third World
  • Methods of education, cultural work,
    collectivization, and antireligious propaganda

Stalins Third World Adventures
  • Turkey, Iran, China, and Korea

Soviet Foreign Policy
  • German Attack 1941
  • Soviet foreign policy is redirected
  • Stalin does not want to anger the USA
  • USSR is afraid of the Allies forming a separate
    peace with Germany
  • Separate Peace Treaties would leave the USSR to
    fight Germany alone

Stalins Orders to Communist Parties Throughout
the World
  • Do Not antagonize
  • Feels the UK and USA would feud over the spoils,
    he is wrong
  • Fears a unified, unipolar capitalist world under
    the watch of the USA
  • Wants Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania,
    and Bulgaria as a security belt

  • Sees no hope for revolution
  • Dominance of Turkish Bourgeois Nationalism the
    USA is watching
  • Would like it for security, control of the Black
    Sea entrance, air and naval bases
  • Not worth the risk

  • Soviets biggest southern neighbor
  • 1941 Allied agreement, USSR would occupy Northern
    Iran, Britain Southern Iran
  • British help oust the Shah Pahlavi (leaning
    towards Hitler)
  • The Shahs son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi replaces him

  • Foreign occupation had thrown the door open for
    new political groups
  • Tudeh Led by Communists, it was the largest and
    best organized
  • Others such as ethnic minorities Azeris, Kurds,
    and Arabs (Iran is Persian) are organizing

  • Additionally, in Qum- Irans leading religious
    center- Ruhollah Khomeini and others call for
  • 1943 Majlis Election shows strong support for the
    liberal and leftists leaders
  • Examples include Ahmed Qavam (73 years old) and
    Mohammad Mossadeq

  • Tudeh sends messages to Stalin
  • They want an immediate revolution
  • Stalin strongly disagrees
  • By following Stalins orders does the party
    miss out on the correct timing for revolt?
  • Stalin wants a piece of the Oil, bases, and does
    not want to jeopardize his chances

  • Stalin turns to using northern ethnic separatists
    rather than Iranian Communists to reach his aims
  • He plans with Soviet Azerbaijan leader Mir
    Bagirov to organize a movement
  • Stalin could either work with him for oil, or
    tell Tehran hed help put it down for oil

  • Elites realize that there was danger with the
    USSR, turn to Ahmad Qavam (76 yr. old land owner)
    to become the Prime Minister
  • Qavam and the USSR go back and forth and
    eventually Qavam asks for American assistance
  • May 1946, the Soviets leave Iran.. no oil deal.
    By the end of 1946 the shahs army retook the
  • Terrible revenge on the Azeri and Kurdish
    separatists, Qavam dismissed as PM (Dec. 1947)

  • Mao, unlike Tudeh, does NOT follow the detailed
    instructions of Stalin
  • Mao ignores Stalins wish for him to make peace
    with the KMT
  • By 1948, KMT armies were now weak, and were
    losing the American money and interest
  • 1948-49 Mao prepares to push to Southern China

  • Stalins last Third World adventure
  • He reluctantly backs Kim Il Sung
  • Soviet involvement was revenge for the US
    behavior in Germany, Europe, the Balkans, the
    Middle East and especially the decision to form

Prime Reason for Soviet Involvement in the 3rd
  • Under Stalin, Third World Communism had to serve
    Soviet purposes in the global Cold War
  • It seems as if Stalin - having started the climb
    toward Socialism in One Country - was
    deliberately kicking away the ladder for others
    to follow

  • 1949-50, Stalin is uncertain about the future of
    Maos Communism
  • Stalin signs a treaty conducive to Soviet
    security, NOT a true alliance between two
    Communist-run states
  • Even after the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship,
    Alliance, and Mutual Assistance (Feb. 14, 1950)
    Stalin is still not sure about Mao
  • Stalins previous backingof the KMT and this are
    seeds for the upcoming Sino/Soviet split

Soviet Rediscovery of the Third World
  • 1955 - 1960
  • Khrushchev and the Politburos New Policies

Khrushchev and the Politburos New Policies
  • Travel to India, Burma, Beijing, and Afghanistan
  • No armed intervention
  • Cooperate with the national development of
    non-socialist countries of the Third World
    (economic and military)
  • Enemy was colonialism and imperialism

Khrushchev Attacks Stalin
  • 20th Party Congress - 1956
  • He neglected the Third World
  • Assistance to Workers Parties was necessary
  • The Soviets had

1951 - Last known in-depth Stalin statement on
3rd World problems
  • Indonesia He criticized the Communist party
    there, Indonesia represents a group of islands
    encircled by seas, and the Indonesian comrades
    could not lean anywhere (China had the USSR at
    their back)
  • What was his motive for such a statement?

  • I love you daddy