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An Introduction to Leadership Styles: Which Style Works Best?

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Title: An Introduction to Leadership Styles: Which Style Works Best?


1
  • An Introduction to Leadership Styles Which
    Style Works Best?
  • Dee Edwards
  • National Coordinator Learning Languages
  • May 2012

2
Focus Question
  • What leadership style do you practice when
    leading in your department?
  • Activities
  • Interview Dance Card
  • Leadership Quotes

3
The Four Pillars of an Organisation
Command communicates the vision or goal to the
best people who can implement it. Management
allocates the resources and helps to organise the
activities that will make it a reality.
Leadership helps to guide, coach, and motivate
the people to do their best. Control reduces
risks, which in turn makes the process more
efficient. The four pillars need to be in harmony
with each other.
4
The Four Pillars of an Organisation
Leadership drives the interpersonal aspects of
the organisation, such as morale and team
spirit. Management deals with the conceptual
issues of the organisation, such as planning and
organising. Command guides the organisation with
well thought-out visions that makes it
effective. Control provides structure to the
organisation in order to make it more efficient.
5
The four pillars need to be in harmony with each
other. When one or more of them is too strong or
too weak, the organisation falls out of
balance. The four pillars must consistently be
weighed against each other to ensure they are in
a proper balance that allows the organisation to
achieve its vision.
6
Determining a person's leadership style is
accomplished by measuring the degree that a
person likes working with tasks and
people. Focus Question If I scored higher in
that area, would I be a more effective
leader? Identify a Personal Action Item.
7
Leadership Styles
  • The three major styles of leadership are
  • Authoritarian or autocratic
  • Participative or democratic
  • Delegative or Free Reign

8
Authoritarian (Autocratic)
I want both of you to .
9
Participative (Democratic)
Lets work together to solve this .
10
Delegative (Free Reign)
You two take care of the problem while I go .
11
Forces
  • A good leader uses all three styles, depending on
    what forces are involved
  • Time
  • Relationships
  • Knowledge
  • Conflicts
  • Stress
  • Complexity
  • Accountability

12
(No Transcript)
13
  • In educational settings, the concept of
    leadership has three particularly important
    features
  • It includes both positional and distributed
    leadership.
  • It views leadership as highly fluid.
  • It sees leadership as embedded in specific tasks
    and situations.
  • Educational leadership is about
  • getting to the core of the business of teaching
    and learning and increasing the likelihood of
    having a positive impact on students.
  • causing others to do things that can be expected
    to improve educational outcomes for students.
  • having an in-depth knowledge of the core business
    of teaching and learning.
  • School Leadership and Student Outcomes
    Identifying What Works and Why Best Evidence
    Synthesis iteration BES, by Robinson, Hohepa
    and Lloyd, The University of Auckland, NZ
    Ministry of Education (2009).

14

15
SWOT Analysis
  • Strengths Factors of your leadership style that
    are likely to have a positive effect on effective
    teaching practice leading to successful student
    outcomes in Learning Languages
  • Weaknesses Factors that are likely to have a
    negative effect on (or be a barrier to) achieving
    these objectives
  • Opportunities External Factors that are likely
    to have a positive effect on achieving or
    exceeding these objectives
  • Threats External Factors and conditions that
    are likely to have a negative effect on achieving
    these objectives, or making the objectives
    unachievable.

16
SWOT Analysis
  • Strengths the positive attributes that are
    within your control. What do you do well as a
    leader in terms of meeting the priority outcomes?
    What resources do you have? What advantages do
    you have as a department/school?
  • Weaknesses the factors that are within your
    control that detract from your ability to achieve
    the identified outcomes. Which areas might you
    improve?
  • Opportunities assess the external factors that
    positively support the success of your leadership
    in your department in terms of the identified
    outcomes. What opportunities exist from which you
    hope to benefit?
  • Threats the factors beyond your control that
    are also external and which you have no control
    over. What factors are potential threats to the
    leadership of your department in terms of
    achieving the outcomes? A threat is a challenge
    created by an unfavourable trend or development.
    What situations might threaten your efforts?
  • Activity Think, Pair, Share

17
What principals want from leaders in Learning
Languages A whole school perspective
Demonstrated leadership potential Skills in
appraisal and performance Skills in observation
and feedback Skills in difficult
conversations Potential to be a leader of
school-wide learning
18
Good leaders are made not born. If you have the
desire and willpower, you can become an effective
leader. Good leaders develop through a never
ending process of self-study, education,
training, and experience. Jago, 1982
Leadership is a process whereby an individual
influences a group of individuals to achieve a
common goal. Northouse (2007, p3)
19
Reflection
  • What would you change about your leadership style
    when leading your department?
  • What aspects of this session do you plan to
    include in your departmental PLD?
  • Ehara taku toa I te toa takitahi engari he toa
    takini.

20
The New Zealand Curriculum (2007) and Learning
Languages
Dee Edwards May 2012 National
Co-ordinator Learning Languages
21
Learning Outcomes
  • To review the front end statements of the New
    Zealand Curriculum (2007) and their learning area
    statements of the eighth essential learning area
    Learning Languages.
  • To develop some understandings around Inquiry.

22
Overview
23
Hipkins, R. (2008). Inquiry Learning and Key
Competencies Perfect Match or Problematic
Partners? NZCERWellington. Presentation.
24
The Key Competencies
Activity Working in small groups review the
statements relevant to one of the Key
Competencies on the handout discuss how you can
provide conditions that support and challenge the
students you work with to develop the key
competencies. Be prepared to share with the
wider group. The Key Competencies do not
replace knowledge but they can powerfully
transform what students can do with
it! Hipkins, 2008.
25
How is the NZC (2007) different?
  • Greater emphasis on broad outcomes
  • A strong connection between the NZC and the NCEA
    standards
  • Acknowledges the importance of effective pedagogy
  • Developing the lifelong learner
  • A more participatory view
  • Strengthens connections
  • Natural Connections exist between learning areas.

26
Much more than the language!
  • In Learning Languages, students learn to
    communicate in an additional language, develop
    their capacity to learn further languages, and to
    explore different world views in relation to
    their own.
  • Key Concepts are the big ideas and understandings
    that we hope will remain with our students long
    after they have left school. The key concepts in
    Learning Languages are
  • Communication
  • Identity
  • Literacy
  • http//seniorsecondary.tki.org.nz/Learning-languag
    es/Key-concepts

27
Communication
'An intercultural speaker is someone who can
operate their linguistic competence and their
sociolinguistic awareness of the relationship
between language and the context in which it is
used, in order to manage interaction across
cultural boundaries, to anticipate
misunderstandings caused by differences in
values, meanings and beliefs, and thirdly, to
cope with the affective as well as cognitive
demands and engagement with otherness.' Byram,
M. (1995). Intercultural Competence and Mobility
in Multinational Contexts A European View.
Clevedon Multilingual Matters.
28
Identity
'In a dynamic view of culture, cultural
competence is seen, therefore as intercultural
behaviour. It is the ability to negotiate meaning
across cultural boundaries and to establish ones
own identity as a user of another
language.' (Kramsch, C. (1993) Language study
as border study Experiencing difference.
European Journal of Education, 28(3), pp.
349358.)
29
Literacy
'Learning languages in a school setting involves
developing learners capabilities for both using
language and learning language. Learners need to
learn how to learn and how to learn a language.
Even more important is that they develop higher
order thinking skills and that they perceive the
important relationship between thought, language
and knowledge.' (Scarino, A. (2000). The
Neglected Goals of Language Learning. Babel,
34(3), (Summer 1999-2000), pp. 411.)
30
The NZC (2007) and Student Inquiry
  • Learning to learn
  • School-based curriculum design
  • Interconnected nature of learning
  • A more participatory view of learning
  • Inquiry skills/disposition
  • Huge range of potential inquiry contexts
  • Fertile questions often span learning areas
  • Students active at all stages of inquiry process

Hipkins, R. (2008). Inquiry Learning and Key
Competencies Perfect Match or Problematic
Partners? NZCERWellington. Presentation.
31
What is teacher inquiry?
At its most basic, inquiry is a process in which
those involved investigate what is working well
for student learning and achievement and should
be continued, and what is not working well and
should be changed. (Timperley Parr, 2009)
32
Teacher Inquiry and Knowledge-building Cycle to
Promote Valued Student Outcomes
Timperley, H., Wilson, A., Barrar, H. Fung, I.
(2008) Teacher Professional Learnng and
Development A Best Evidence Iteration.
http//educationcounts.edcentre.govt.na/goto/BES
33
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34
Analysing Interpreting NCEA Data
Eric Waardenburg Assessment Facilitator Team
Solutions
35
He Whakatauki
  • He toa takitini taku toa, ehara i te toa takitahi
  • My achievement was with the support of many, not
    by working alone

36
Why do we analyse NCEA data?
  • School-wide assessment?
  • Requirements for Boards of Trustees?
  • Teaching as Inquiry?

37
Why inquire using data?
  • Making a difference to student learning and
    achievement is a key outcome.
  • Inquiry using data raises student achievement
    beyond national expectations.
  • (Timperley Parr, 2009 Lai et al., 2009)

38
School-Wide Assessment
  • Schools need to know what impact their
    programmes are having on student learning. An
    important way of getting this information is by
    collecting and analysing school-wide assessment
    data. Schools can then use this information as
    the basis for changes to policies or programmes
    or changes to teaching practices as well as for
    reporting to the board of trustees, parents, and
    the MOE. Assessment information may also be used
    to compare the relative achievement of different
    groups of students or to compare the achievement
    of the schools students against national
    standards.
  • NZC, p.40

39
Requirements for Boards of Trustees
  • Each board of trustees, through the principal
    and staff, is required
  • gt to gather information that is sufficiently
    comprehensive to enable evaluation of student
    progress and achievement
  • gt to identify students and groups of students
    who are not achieving....
  • gt in consultation with the schools Maori
    community to develop and make known its plans and
    targets for improving the achievement of Maori
    students.
  • NZC, p.44

40
Teaching as Inquiry
  • Assessment is integral to the teaching inquiry
    process because it is the basis for both the
    focusing inquiry and the learning inquiry.
  • (NZC, 2007, p.40)
  • Making a difference to student learning and
    achievement is a key outcome.
  • Inquiry using data raises student achievement
    beyond national expectations.
  • (Timperley Parr, 2009 Lai et al., 2009)

41
From Data to Evidence
42
  • Being a leader in a data-driven world requires a
    positive orientation to using data and a range of
    skills and knowledge associated with the
    conventions of interpreting and using data. We
    suggest that leading schools in a data rich world
    requires that teachers
  • Develop an inquiry habit of mind
  • Become data literate
  • Create a culture of inquiry
  • Leading Schools in a Data Rich World
  • Lorna Earl and Steven Katz p.4

43
What approach do we take to the analysis of NCEA
data?
  • For Level 1, how did this cohort perform
    compared to cohorts of previous years?
  • For level 1, how did the cohort perform in their
    3rd year of schooling? (What information did we
    have from this cohort from their Year 9 10
    achievement data to set our targets?
  • eg. e-asTTle results)
  • http//softwareforlearning.wikispaces.com/Focusin
    gInquiry

44
NZQA website for NCEA
  • Literature on
  • Secondary Statistics User Manual
  • Getting the Best from the Statistics A Guide
  • http//www.nzqa.govt.nz/

45
The Big Picture
  • When doing a self-review of student achievement
    results, it is advisable to build a picture of
    the data, starting with the big picture, and
    then drilling down to the finer details.

46
  • The National statistics
  • What are the level 1,2,3 results for NZ students?
  • What are the level 1,2,3 results for NZ students
    by your school decile? 
  • Your school statistics
  • What are the level 1,2,3 results for all students
    in your school?
  • What are the level 1,2,3 results for all students
    in a like school?
  • (a school with same characteristics, decile,
    gender(s), locality)

47
  • Your subject statistics - Nationally
  • How did all NZ students perform in this subject?
  • (by unit standard, internal and external
    achievement standard)
  • How did all NZ students, by your school decile,
    perform in this subject?
  • Your subject statistics your school
  • How did all your students taking the subject
    perform?
  • (by unit standard, internal and external
    achievement standard)
  • How did the students in the like school
    perform?

48
  • Your subject by unit standards, internal
    achievement standards, external achievement
    standards
  • For each category of the above
  • How did all NZ students perform for L1, L2, L3
    (listed separately)
  • How did all NZ students, by your school decile,
    perform at L1, L2, L3
  • How did your students perform for L1, L2, L3
    (listed separately)
  • How did the students in the like school
    perform?

49
  • For each level (L1, L2, L3)
  • How did your students perform for each standard?
  • Who are the students
  • (for each category of N, A, M, E, DNS, SNA)
  • Is one gender group performing better?
  • Is any one ethnic group performing better?
  • Other questions

50
Some Common Problems
  • Over-emphasis on the Where are students at? at
    the expense of the What do we change? and What
    next?
  • Insufficient PCK to diagnose students needs and
    identify what to change
  • Leader overly-dominates data discussion i.e.,
    unclear what teachers really know/think because
    leader does most of the talking

51
asTTle and Learning Languages
Dee Edwards May 2012 National
Co-ordinator Learning Languages
52
What is e-asTTle?
  • e-asTTle is an online assessment tool, developed
    to assess students achievement and progress in
    reading, mathematics, writing, and in panui,
    pangarau and tuhituhi.
  • Developed primarily for the assessment of
    students in years 510, but because it tests
    curriculum levels 2-6 it can be used for students
    in lower and higher year levels. e-asTTle
    provides teachers and school leaders with
    information that can be used to inform learning
    programmes and to apply teaching practice that
    maximises individual student learning.

53
The asTTle Assessment Tool
  • Provides reliable and valid assessment
    information for teachers and students to enhance
    teaching and learning. This supports the shift in
    understanding of best educational practice from
    an emphasis on assessment of learning to
    assessment for learning.
  • See TKI links for more information on Assessment
    for Learning.

54
Tabular Output Report
55
(No Transcript)
56
Curriculum Levels Report
57
  • Task-based Languages Teaching
  • Dee Edwards
  • National Coordinator Learning Languages
  • May 2012

58
Focus Questions
  • What does Task-based Language Teaching look like
    in the classroom?
  • What does a student-centred approach look like in
    a Learning Languages classroom?

59
What is a task?
  • Activity
  • Write one or two sentences to describe
  • What is a task?
  • What does a task involve?
  • Write down (briefly) a task you use in your
    class.
  • Share.

60
What is a task?
  • A task is an activity where
  • The target language is used by the learner
  • For a communicative purpose
  • In order to achieve an outcome
  • (Ref Willis, 199623)
  • What do tasks involve?
  • A primary focus on meaning
  • Some kind of gap
  • Real world processes of language use
  • A clearly defined communicative outcome
  • (Ref Ellis, 2006)

61
  • Tasks work best when they inspire the learner to
    invest mental energy, and to persist even if the
    task is complex or difficult.
  • (Ref Van Gorp Bogaert, p 82, 91)

62
Figuring a task out.
  • Evaluate how task-like something is
  • Does the activity engage the learners interest?
  • Is there a primary focus on meaning?
  • Is success judged in terms of outcomes?
  • Is completion a priority?
  • Does the activity relate to the real world?
  • (Ref Willis and Willis, 2007)

63
Figuring out a task.
  • According to Ellis a task is a task when it
  • requires learners to focus predominantly on
    meaning
  • Has some kind of gap that the learners can close
    by communicating
  • Requires learners to construct their own
    productive language rather than to manipulate
    language that the teacher provides
  • Has a clearly defined outcome (other than
    producing correct language)
  • (Ref Ministry of Education. (2006). Instructed
    Second Language Acquisition Case Studies.
    Wellington Learning Media (p. 4).

64
Review the suggested tasks from the first
discussion activity Are they tasks? What might
need to be changed? Discuss how is a task
different to an activity. Are activities still
valid in Languages programmes? When should they
be used?
65
Figuring a task out.
  • Pre task
  • Motivation
  • Preparation
  • Ideas
  • Language
  • Models
  • Instructions

Main task pressure planning input
  • Post-task
  • Reporting / presenting/ exchanging
  • Reflecting
  • Attention to form

Erlam, R. (2010) Task-based Language Teaching in
the Spanish Classroom. Presentation
66
What is different?
PPP TBLT
Presentation Grammar Focus Practice Grammar Exercises Production Open practise, Focus on meaning Pre-task Language focus Task Focus is on meaning Post-task Grammar focus
67
Why Task-based Languages Teaching?
  • The most effective way to teach a language is by
    engaging learners in real language use in the
    classroom
  • This is done by designing tasks discussions,
    problems, games, and so on which require
    learners to use language for themselves
  • (Ref Willis and Willis, 2007)

68
Why Task-based Languages Teaching?
  • The most effective way to teach a language is by
    engaging learners in real language use in the
    classroom
  • This is done by designing tasks discussions,
    problems, games, and so on which require
    learners to use language for themselves
  • (Ref Willis and Willis, 2007)

69
(No Transcript)
70
  • Student Centred-Learning in the Learning
    Languages Classroom
  • Dee Edwards
  • National Coordinator Learning Languages
  • May 2012

71
A Communicative approach to Language Learning and
Teaching
  • Employs activities that prepare students for
    natural, appropriate additional-language use
    outside the classroom.
  • Much more than grammar drills, word memorisation
    or repetition.
  • Enable students to function independently in
    their language use.
  • Effective and culturally appropriate in natural
    discourse.
  • Error tolerance.

72
Teachers Role
  • To present real-language models to the students
    as comprehensible input.
  • To use a limited amount of controlled exercises.
  • To allow students to interact with each other.
  • To emphasise the processes of understanding.
  • To focus more on the students learning.
  • To develop student autonomy.
  • To use more open-ended activities.

73
Teachers Role
  • To encourage students to be risk-takers in their
    language use.  
  • To provide materials for student-use that
    represent real, natural language.
  • To develop tasks that reflect authentic
    situations.
  • To provide feedback that is meaningful to
    students.  
  • To use a variety of hands-on activities that
    promote language acquisition.

74
Students Role
  • To participate actively in the learning process.
  • To be involved throughout the class time in
    activities that help them to make meaning of the
    language being used.
  • To learn by doing in authentic contexts.
  • Take more responsibility for their own learning.

75
Summary
  •  
  • The teacher
  • is more of a facilitator than instructor.
  • guides students to manage their activities, and
    direct their learning.
  • is a member of the class as a participant in the
    learning process.
  • The students
  • are active participants in the learning process.
  • take more responsibility for their own learning.

76
In a Student-Centred Class
  • At different times, students may work
  • Alone.
  • Together in pairs or groups.
  • Or interact with the teacher and the whole class.
  • Students may be teacher-led
  • Before students work together, their teacher will
    help them prepare to work .
  • While students are working together.
  • After students have finished working together.

77
In a Student-Centred Class
  • When students are working together in the Target
    Language, they
  • Talk more
  • Share their ideas
  • Learn from each other
  • Are more involved
  • Feel more secure and less anxious
  • Use English in a meaningful, realistic way
  • Enjoy using English to communicate
  •  Ref Jones, L. (2007). The Student-Centred
    Classroom. Canterbury University PressNewYork.

78
Reflection
  • What changes would you make to the approaches you
    use in your learning languages classroom?
  • What aspects of this session do you plan to
    include in your departmental PLD?
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