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Seventeenth%20Century%20Politics:%20Part%20I:%20England

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Seventeenth Century Politics: Part I: England Who Rules the State? Issues in 17th Century Politics Struggle for Stability over war, rebellion and economic chaos ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Seventeenth%20Century%20Politics:%20Part%20I:%20England


1
Seventeenth Century Politics Part I England
  • Who Rules the State?

2
Issues in 17th Century Politics
  • Struggle for Stability over war, rebellion and
    economic chaos
  • Struggle to make the State Sovereign, I.e.,
    dominant over its territories and its people
  • Struggle over who will control the State the
    monarch, the nobility or the wealthy?

3
England at Midcentury
  • Civil War 1640-1648
  • King Charles I executed 1649
  • Commonwealth ruled by Lord Protector Cromwell
    a Puritan Parliament
  • 1658 Cromwell dead
  • 1661 Monarchy Restored by Parliament

4
England Foundations of Constitutional Government
  • Magna Carta 1215
  • Parliament, 13th Century
  • Lords Nobles and Bishops
  • Commons Gentry and Merchants
  • Laws and Extraordinary Taxes
  • English Reformation
  • Henry VIII becomes Head of the Church
  • Elizabeth I Power through Compromise

5
The Stuarts
  • James I VI of England and Scotland
  • Ruled 1603-1625
  • Asserted Absolute Power
  • Antagonized People over
  • Politics
  • Religion
  • Taxes
  • Spent Lavishly on Court, on Favorites

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7
The Stuarts Charles I
  • Ruled 1625-1649 (executed)
  • Asserted Absolute Power over
  • Finances and taxes
  • The State
  • The Church
  • Petition of Right 1628
  • Ruled without calling Parliament until 1639
  • Civil War 1642-1649

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10
Cromwells Commonwealth
  • Cromwell, The Lord Protector of the Realm
  • Imposed Puritan Principles
  • No dancing, theatres or card-playing
  • Sumptuary laws governing dress styles
  • Exiled Opponents in Parliament
  • Died in 1658
  • Son Richard stepped aside after ruling until 1660

11
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12
Restoration Charles II
  • Parliament invited Charles to rule in 1661
  • Determined to die of natural causes
  • Personally extravagant, but worked with
    Parliament
  • Accepted Church of England
  • Married Portuguese Princess, but no legitimate
    children
  • Died in 1685
  • Converted to Catholicism on Death bed

13
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14
James II 1685-1688
  • Charles Catholic younger brother, born 1633 at
    52, old by 17th standards
  • Widowed with 2 Adult Daughters, but remarried to
    a Catholic Princess
  • Admired France and Louis XIV
  • Determined to impose absolute monarchy on England

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17
Glorious Revolution 1688
  • Crisis Prince Charles born 1688 baptized in a
    Catholic ceremony
  • Warming Pan Controversy
  • Parliamentary Leadership Invited James IIs elder
    daughter Mary and her husband, William of Orange
    to take the throne
  • James II, wife and baby flee to France
  • William and Mary take throne

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20
Results of Glorious Revolution
  • Government a partnership between Parliament and
    the Monarch
  • Bill of Rights protects life, liberty, property
  • Parliament to approve taxes
  • MPs have immunity from arrest and prosecution for
    anything said in Parliament
  • Catholics barred from throne
  • How Democratic was English Government after 1688?

21
Constitutional Government
  • King ruled with Parliament but
  • Parliament controlled by
  • Lords
  • Hereditary Nobility
  • Bishops
  • Commons Men of Property
  • Gentry (substantial rural landowners)
  • Merchants, bankers, wealthy professionals in towns

22
Result in England
  • By 1700, English monarchs had lost the struggle
    for absolute power. Principle was established
    that royal authority was NOT absolute, but shared
    with Parliament.
  • Foundations existed for additional sharing of
    power in the future, although it would be the
    19th century before average man could vote 20th
    before women could vote.

23
To Think About.
  • Why were the English successful in resisting
    absolutism and in limiting the Kings power?
  • Which groups of people participated in political
    processes in 17th and 18th century England?
  • How democratic was the Glorious Revolution?
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