The organs, tubes, muscles, and nerves that work together to create, store, and carry urine are the urinary system. The urinary system includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, two sphincter muscles, and the urethra. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The organs, tubes, muscles, and nerves that work together to create, store, and carry urine are the urinary system. The urinary system includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, two sphincter muscles, and the urethra.

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The organs, tubes, muscles, and nerves that work together to create, store, and carry urine are the urinary system. The urinary system includes two kidneys, two ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The organs, tubes, muscles, and nerves that work together to create, store, and carry urine are the urinary system. The urinary system includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, two sphincter muscles, and the urethra.


1
The Urinary System
  • The organs, tubes, muscles, and nerves that work
    together to create, store, and carry urine are
    the urinary system. The urinary system includes
    two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, two
    sphincter muscles, and the urethra.

2

Excretion
  • Excretion is the process of removing wastes and
    excess products from the body
  • Three of your body systems are involved in
    excretion
  • Your skin releases waste products and water when
    you sweat
  • Your lungs expel carbon dioxide and water when
    you exhale
  • Your urinary system removes waste products from
    your blood

3
Cleaning the blood
  • Your blood is like a supply train that comes into
    a town to drop off supplies and take away garbage
  • The train has to find a way to get rid of the
    garbage before it can load up with more supplies.
  • If the garbage is not
    removed,
    the townspeople will be in a
    very unhealthy environment

4
Kidneys
  • The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs that
    constantly clean the blood.
  • Your kidneys filter about 2,000 liters of blood
    each day
  • Your body only holds 5.6 liters of blood, so your
    blood cycles through the kidneys about 350 times
    a day

5
Inside the Kidney
  • Inside each kidney are more than 1 million
    microscopic filters called nephrons
  • Nephrons remove a variety of harmful substances
    from the body.

6
How the Kidneys Filter Blood
  • A large artery brings blood into each kidney
  • Tiny blood vessels branch off the main artery and
    pass through part of each nephron
  • Water and other substances are forced out of the
    blood vessels and into the nephrons

7
Nephrons
  • As these substances flow through the nephrons,
    most of the water and some nutrients are moved
    back into blood vessels
  • A concentrated mixture of waste materials is left
    behind in the nephrons
  • The cleased blood leaves each kidney in a large
    vein to recirculate in the body

8
Urination
  • The yellow fluid that remains in the nephrons is
    called urine
  • Urine leaves each kidney through a slender tube
    called the ureter and flows into the urinary
    bladder
  • Urine leaves the body through another tube called
    the urethra
  • Urination is the process of expelling urine from
    the body.

9
Water In, Water Out
  • Our bodies would swell up with excess water if we
    did not excrete as much water as we take in.
  • The balance of fluids is controlled by chemical
    messengers in the body called hormones

10
Sweat and Thirst
  • When you get hot, you lose more water in the form
    of sweat
  • The evaporation of water from your skin cools you
    down
  • As the water content of the blood drops, the
    salivary glands produce less saliva
  • This is one of the reasons you feel thirsty.

11
Antidiuretic Hormone
  • When you get thirsty, other parts of your body
    react to the water shortage
  • A hormone called antidiuretic hormone, or ADH, is
    released
  • ADH signals the kidneys to take back water from
    the nephrons and return it to the bloodstream,
    thereby making less urine
  • When your blood is too watery, smaller amounts of
    ADH are released
  • The kidneys react by allowing more water to stay
    in the nephron and leave the body as urine

12
Diuretics
  • When you are thirsty, your tissues are asking for
    more water
  • Some beverages contain caffeine, which is a
    diuretic
  • Diuretics cause the kidneys to make more
    urine, which decreases the amount of water
    in the blood
  • So instead of giving your body more water,
    caffeinated beverages cause additional water
    to be lost in urine

13
Urinary System Ailments
  • Since the urinary system regulates body fluids
    and removes wastes from the blood, any
    malfunction can become life-threatening
  • Some common urinary system disorders are
  • Bacterial infections
  • Kidney stones
  • Kidney disease

14
Bacterial Infections
  • Bacteria can get into the bladder and ureters
    through the urethra and cause painful infections
  • It is important to treat such an infection early
    because it could spread to the kidneys and lead
    to permanent damage
  • Drinking six-eight 8 oz glasses of water can
    help prevent these infections

15
Kidney Stones
  • Sometimes salts and wastes collect inside the
    kidneys and form kidney stones.
  • Kidney stones interfere with urine flow and cause
    pain
  • Most kidney stones pass naturally from the body,
    but sometimes a medical procedure is necessary

16
Kidney Disease
  • Damage to nephrons can prevent normal kidney
    functioning, leading to kidney disease
  • If the kidneys do not function properly, a kidney
    machine can be used to filter waste from the
    blood.
  • The machine pumps blood from an artery in the
    forearm or wrist to a kidney machine, where it is
    filtered.
  • The cleaned blood is then pumped back into a vein
    in the arm.
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