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ANDREW JACKSON Champion of the Common Man or King Andrew?

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Title: JOHN QUINCY ADAMS President #6 1825-1829 Author: USER Last modified by: montagp Created Date: 10/24/2002 11:58:22 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ANDREW JACKSON Champion of the Common Man or King Andrew?


1
ANDREW JACKSON Champion of the Common Man or
King Andrew?
2
Changes in Voting Requirements by 1828 Election
3
Voter Turnout 1820 - 1860
KING CAUCUS!!
4
JACKSON GETS REVENGE Election of 1828
  • By the time of this election, the one party of
    Republicans has divided into
  • National Republicans
  • Democrats/Jacksonians/
  • Jacksonian Democrats
  • Electoral Vote
  • Jackson, 178
  • Adams, 83
  • Jackson - S W
  • Adams - NE

5
JACKSON GETS REVENGE Election of 1828
  • By the time of this election, the one party of
    Republicans has divided into
  • National Republicans
  • Democrats/Jacksonians/
  • Jacksonian Democrats
  • Electoral Vote
  • Jackson, 178
  • Adams, 83
  • Jackson - S W
  • Adams - NE

Mudslinging prominent!
6
JACKSONIAN APPEAL
Coffin Handbill
Rachel
  • War Hero, strong leader, passionate, intensely
    patriotic, average but ideal
  • Fascinating personal history
  • Rich landowner, slaveowner

7
The Center of Population in the Country Moves WEST
8
The New Jackson Coalition
  • The Planter Elite in the South
  • People on the Frontier
  • State Politicians spoils system
  • Immigrants in the cities.

9
JACKSONS FAITH IN THE COMMON MAN
  • Intense distrust of Eastern establishment,
    monopolies, special privilege.
  • His heart soul was with the plain folk.
  • Belief that the common man was capable of
    uncommon achievements.

10
The Reign of King Mob
11
President Jackson was known for opening up the
White House to visitors of all classes. His
inauguration party lasted for hours as throngs of
people from packed streets pushed into the White
House. This painting captures the rowdy scene
with its broken furniture and stifling crowd.
King Mob was so dangerous that Jackson had to
be taken out through a window and it took an
entire week to scrub and clean the White House
after the party.
12
Increased Democratization
  • White male suffrage increased
  • Party nominating conventions.
  • Spoils system.
  • Rise of Third Parties.
  • Popular campaigning (parades, rallies, floats,
    etc.)
  • Two-party system returned in the 1832 election
  • Dem-Reps ? Natl. Reps.(1828) ? Whigs
    (1832) ? Republicans (1854)
  • Democrats (1828)

13
Jacksonian Democracy
  • Common people have more of a voice candidates
    (Coonskin Congressmen) seek vote of ordinary
    man
  • Elected officials expected to be responsive to
    will of their constituents
  • SPOILS SYSTEM - a/k/a patronage
  • Appointing party supporters to political office
  • Rotation in office
  • Common man can do any job Jackson distrusts
    experts
  • Social political changes that led to the rise
    of Jacksonian democracy
  • Disestablishment of churches
  • Move to improve knowledge (free school/more
    secondary)
  • More newspaper circulation
  • Differences between Jacksonian democracy and
    Jeffersonian democracy?

14
KING ANDREW
His supporters viewed Jackson as a strong
President who represented the common people.
Critics denounced him as a would-be tyrant.
They called him King Andrew the First.
  • Appeared in Whig newspaper
  • This visual draws more interest than a printed
    article would
  • During his first term
  • Main Idea Jackson has unconstitutionally
    expanded the power of the presidency

15
King Andrew as President
  • Uses veto more than 6 previous Ps COMBINED
  • First to use pocket veto
  • Relied on Kitchen Cabinet
  • Opposed federal aid to local road building
    projects Maysville Road Bill
  • In Clays state of KY
  • Jeffersonian in his view of a limited national
    government
  • Poor administrator penny-pincher

16
The Nullification Issue Calhouns Nullification
Theory
  • Calhoun claimed that the Union had not been
    formed by the people, but by people representing
    States.
  • This meant that a state was sovereign, not the
    national government.
  • The states were the units which formed the
    compact (union), thus the states could withdraw
    from that compact (the union) if they so desired.
  • Calhoun also said that a state could declare an
    act of the federal government null and void
    within that state's borders.

17
The Nullification Issue Webster-Hayne
Debate Prime Reflection of Sectional Conflict
Western Land Policy 9 Day Debate! 1830
Sen. Robert Hayne SC
Sen. Daniel Webster MA
  • Allies with West
  • Condemns NE for ?
  • Supports?

18
Webster Liberty and Union, now and
forever, one and inseparable. .nothing more
than a rope of sand. Impact of Websters
oratory in the N?
JEFFERSON DAY BANQUET Jackson Our Federal
Unionit must be preserved.
Calhoun The Union, next to our liberty, most
dear.
So is Jackson a nationalist or a states
rightist?
19
The Peggy Eaton Affair
Another cause of The split between P Jackson and
VP Calhoun. Calhoun resigns
20
THE TARIFF ISSUE
  • Tariff of 1824 had raised rates from 23 to 37
  • Tariff of 1828 increased some rates to 45
  • Protested as the Tariff of Abominations
  • SC protest Calhouns SC Exposition and
    Protest
  • Theory of nullification reborn
  • Protection against the tyranny of the majority
  • Tariff of 1832 passed
  • SC passes Ordinance of Nullification seems to
    be only solution to solve both protective tariff
    issue impending problem of abolition of slavery
  • Jackson issues Proclamation to People of SC
  • Defines nullification as treason
  • No defiance of federal law will be permitted!
  • Threatens force
  • Compromise
  • Tariff of 1833 gradual tariff reductions
  • Force Bill gives P power to use force to stop
    treasonous activities
  • SC repeals its Nullification Ordinance BUT then
    goes on nullifies the Force Bill!

Nullie button
21
The National Bank Issue
vs.
President Jackson
Nicholas Biddle, President of the BUS Brilliant
Manager but...wealthy and arrogant.
22
JACKSONS OPPOSITION TO THE B.U.S.
  • Unconstitutional he just ignores McCulloch
    decision of Supreme Ct.
  • A monopoly on public funds
  • Small banks profits were limited
  • Favors hard money doesnt trust paper
  • Bank favors the rich at the expense of the poor
  • Run by private citizen handful of rich men
  • Un-American foreign investors owned small
    portion of the bank
  • Clay Webster try to use this against him seek
    early renewal of Banks charter in 1832
  • Jackson, as predicted, vetoed the rechartering
    bill

Jackson's actions with regard to the Second Bank
of the U. S. resulted in his censure by Congress
for abuse of power. In this cartoon, Henry Clay
is sewing Jackson's mouth shut.
23
Democratic cartoon shows Jackson fighting the
monster Bank. "The Bank," Jackson told Van Buren
"is trying to kill me, but I will kill it!"
Jackson destroying the Devils bank
24
ELECTION OF 1832
  • Clay tries to get Bank rechartered early knowing
    Jackson will veto it - thought Jacksons veto of
    Bank recharter would keep him from getting
    elected
  • Backfired Jackson elected by a huge margin (219
    to 49)
  • Note national nominating conventions for first
    time in this election
  • Sees his huge margin of victory as a mandate from
    the people to kill the Bank
  • So. he does
  • Had already vetoed the rechartering bill
  • Took federal out of the bank and put them into
    his pet state banks
  • Disastrous effects
  • Paper money scarce specie virtually
    unobtainable
  • Specie Circular, 1836
  • Buy future federal land only with gold or silver
  • Serious panic threatens occurs by 1837 (lasts
    til 43)

25
Indian Removal Policies
  • Jacksons Goal? View of Americans?
  • 1830 ? Indian Removal Act
  • Cherokees John Marshall
  • How does Marshall rule?
  • Cherokee Nation v. GA (1831)
  • Worcester v. GA (1832)
  • Jackson John Marshall has made his decision,
    now let him enforce it!

26
The Cherokee Nation After 1820
What does Jacksons willingness to allow GA
to ignore Supreme Ct. rulings tell states
rightists?
27
THE TRAIL OF TEARS, 1838 1839 Over 4,000 die of
starvation/exposure on 116 day journey
28
Indian Removal
29
SEMINOLES
  • Major exception to Jacksons Indian policies
  • Resisted and were mostly successful
  • Second Seminole War
  • led by Chief Osceola
  • Escaped, hid out in the Everglades and adopted
    entire new lifestyle

30
Jacksons Professed Love for Native Americans
31
Assassination Attempt, 1835
  • Jackson is the only President to beat up his own
    would-be assassin!

32
JACKSON, 1767 - 1845
  • Photo of Andrew Jackson in 1844 (one year before
    his death)

33
Election of 1836
  • Whig Party formed up in opposition to Jackson
  • Emerson enterprising, intelligent,
    well-meaning wealthy part of the people
  • Bankers, intellectuals, scientific, well-educated
  • No single candidate in 1836 - run favorite sons
    (Webster, Harrison)
  • Martin Van Buren, D, wins
  • 1st P born under U.S. flag

Martin Van Buren Old Kinderhook O. K.
34
Van Buren in Office
  • Panic of 1837
  • Full depression by 1839-1843
  • Caused by speculation in western lands, roads,
    canals, RR, slaves
  • Also caused by Jacksons Bank War Specie
    Circular
  • Hands-off approach hurts him
  • Favors states to take on internal improvements
  • No real position on tariffs
  • Only major achievement Independent Treasury
    Bill passed in 1840
  • Divorces govt from banking
  • Govt could then keep surpluses rather than
    having to put them in banks as reserves
  • Bill gets repealed the next year when the Whigs
    take power

35
Election of 1840 Log Cabin Campaign
  • Van Buren (Van Ruin), D, runs for reelection
  • Whigs adopt D strategy of backwoods Westerner and
    run Gen. William Henry Harrison VP John Tyler
    (states rightist)
  • TIPPECANOE TYLER TOO!
  • Misleading campaign huge voter turnout 234 to
    60 for Whigs
  • Harrison shortest P term
  • Principle established party in power during bad
    economic times will LOSE next election

36
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37
LOG CABIN CAMPAIGN
38
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39
Two major changes in American politics
demonstrated in 1840
  • Triumph of the populist democratic style
  • Common man is now firmly at center stage, not
    aristocracy
  • Two party system reigns
  • Jacksonian Democrats
  • Liberty of the individual / common man
  • States rights and federal restraint in social
    and economic issues
  • Whigs Clays American System
  • Economic expansion renewed National Bank
  • Protective tariffs
  • Internal Improvements
  • Public schools moral reforms (temperance,
    slavery)

40
JOHN TYLER
  • 10th president
  • First VP to succeed to office of the P
  • Will NOT be Clay Websters puppet as Harrison
    was supposed to be
  • Becomes the P without a party
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