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Chapter 7-Issues of The Gilded Age

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Title: Chapter 16- Politics and Reform Author: Tina Last modified by: teacher Created Date: 1/27/2007 4:23:37 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 7-Issues of The Gilded Age


1
Chapter 7-Issues of The Gilded Age
  • Section 1 Segregation and Social Tension
  • Section 2 Political and Economic Challenges
  • Section 3Farmers and Populism
  • Standards 2.1, 2.3, 2.9. 2.12, 9.4

2
  • African Americans Lose Freedoms
  • States Governments Limit Voting Rights
  • Poll tax people had to pay to register to vote
    (Georgia 1-2)
  • Literacy tests Understanding Tests
  • Had to own property
  • Grandfather clause In Louisiana this clause
    allowed any man to vote if he had an ancestor on
    the voting rolls in 1867, which made former
    slaves, and their decendants ineligible to vote
  • 1894 130,000 Black Registered Voters in
    Louisiana
  • 1904 1,300 Black Registered Voters
  • Legalizing Segregation
  • Segregation separation of the races
  • Jim Crow laws statutes that enforced segregation
  • Supreme Court overturns the Civil Rights Act of
    1875
  • No longer a violation to keep people out based
    solely on color
  • Plessy v. Ferguson Court case that upheld
    Separate but Equal
  • Racial Violence
  • Lynching executions without proper court
    hearings
  • 80 in the South
  • 70 of the victims were African Americans

3
Jim Crow and Limited Opportunity
4
Section 1 The Rise of Segregation
  • Resistance and Repression
  • Sharecroppers landless farmers who paid in the
    form of crops to a landlord for supplies, rent,
    seed, tools and other supplies were always in
    debt
  • Exodus to Kansas
  • Exodusters migrants of African Americans from
    the rural South to Kansas
  • Forming a Separate Alliance
  • Colored Farmers National Alliance helped
    African Americans economically by setting up
    cooperatives
  • Cooperatives a store where farmers bought
    products from each other an organization that is
    owned and run by the people who use the services
  • Crushing the Populist Revolt
  • An appeal to racism
  • Black Republicanism a step back to
    Reconstruction

5
Exodusters
6
  • African Americans Oppose Injustices
  • Ida B. Wells
  • Memphis Free Speech
  • Anti-lynching
  • Said it was greed not just racial prejudice that
    led to the brutal acts and violence
  • Mob destroyed printing press of Memphis Free
    Speech and drove Ida from town
  • A Call for Compromise
  • Booker T. Washington proposed that African
    Americans concentrate on education and economic
    gains rather than deal with politics
  • Atlanta Compromise Booker T. Washington wanted
    the African American population to postpone the
    fight for Civil Rights until they were prepared
    to full equality.
  • A Voice of the Future
  • W.E.B. Du Bois
  • The Souls of Black Folk
  • Promoting and protecting the voting rights of
    African Americans was the only way to reach
    equality.

7
Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. Dubois, Ida B. Wells
8
Chinese Immigrants Face Discrimination
  • 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act Chinese Immigrants
    Banned for 10 Years
  • Wong Kim Ark v. United States Supreme Court
    Upheld 14th Amendment

9
Mexicans Americans Struggle in the West
  • Abuse and Discrimination Undermine Rights
  • Courts backed white Americans land claims most of
    the time
  • Las Gorras Blancas Extremist group who targeted
    large ranch owners with terror tactics
  • Alianza Hispano-Americana Organization formed to
    protect Mexican-American Culture

10
Women Make Gains and Suffer Setbacks
  • Susan B. Anthony Felt betrayed when 14th/15th
    Amendments did not include women- 1872 Broke law
    by voting illegally in New York
  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton National Womens Suffrage
    Association
  • Womens Christian Temperance Movement Fought for
    womens rights but also wanted to prohibit sale
    of alcohol (18th Amendment)

11
U.S. History I
  • Chapter 7 Section 2
  • Political and Economic Challenges
  • 2.5, 9.1, 9.3, 9.4

12
Section 2 Balance of Power Creates Stalemate
  • 1877-1897 Presidents win by narrow margins and
    presidents are weak or corrupt.
  • Benjamin Harrison Second President to lose
    Popular vote but win Electoral College
  • Chester Arthur Took over after James Garfield
    was assassinated Disliked by OWN Republican
    Party
  • Grover Cleveland Known for his Integrity 1884
    Won 1888 Lost to Harrison (Electoral College)
    1892 Won again (Only one counted TWICE)
  • Corruption Plagues National Politics
  • Joseph Keppler Political Cartoonist The Bosses
    of the Senate Next Slide
  • Patronage government jobs go to the supporters
    of the winning party in an election. Spoils
    System
  • The Pendleton Act Allowed the president to
    decide which federal jobs would be filled
    according to the rules of the Civil Service
    Commission All had to take exam to qualify for
    job.
  • Under Pres. Arthur, 14,000 jobs were placed under
    this program

13
  • Economic Issues Challenge Nation
  • Tariff Tax on Imports
  • Republicans Wanted High Tariffs
  • Democrats Wanted Low Tariffs
  • Silver or Gold
  • Greenbacks retired after Civil War
  • Goldbugs Wanted all coins made of gold
  • Silverites Wanted all coins made of silver

14
Section 3 Farmers and Populism
  • Unrest in Rural America
  • Populism a political movement founded in the
    1890s that mainly represented farmers, favored
    free coinage of silver, and favored government
    control of railroads and other big industries
  • Falling Prices and Rising Debt
  • Greenbacks U.S. paper money
  • Inflation money loses value, higher prices
  • Deflation lower prices, higher buying power
  • Deflation Hurts Farmers
  • The Crime of 73 The decision of the government
    to stop the minting of silver

15
  • The Grange Takes Action Oliver H. Kelley 1867
  • Cooperatives marketing organizations that worked
    to benefit their members
  • The Grange Fails
  • Didnt change economic problems of farmers
  • Railroads fought back by cutting services and
    refusing to lay more track
  • Wabash v. Illinois limited a states ability to
    regulate the railroads, states could not regulate
    interstate commerce
  • The Farmers Alliance
  • Lampasas County, Texas 1877
  • Charles Macune
  • The Alliance Grows
  • Kansas
  • Nebraska
  • North Dakota
  • South Dakota
  • South and Great Plains
  • The Peoples Party Populists
  • The Subtreasury Plan called for the government
    to set up warehouses where farmers could store
    crops for low-interest loans until prices
    increased.

16
  • The Populist Party Demands Reforms
  • Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890 authorized
    the U.S. Treasury to buy 4.5 million ounces of
    silver a month, put more money into circulation
    in an attempt to help farmers
  • The South Turns to Populism
  • Many Southern Democrats move to Populist Party
  • A Populist for President
  • James B. Weaver
  • Graduated income tax taxation of higher earnings
    more heavily
  • Government ownership of railroads
  • The Panic of 1893 Economic Crisis
  • Stock Market on Wall Street Crash
  • Banks closed
  • Economic Depression

17
  • The Election of 1896
  • William Jennings Bryan
  • Supported the minting of silver
  • Also known as prosecutor in the Scopes Monkey
    Trial
  • Bryans Campaign
  • 600 speeches in 14 weeks
  • Republicans nominate William McKinley as the man
    who could beat Bryan
  • The Front Porch Campaign
  • William McKinley spoke only at his Canton, Ohio
    home. Delegates came to see him at his home.
  • Full Dinner Pan
  • Unemployment would rise, wages would be cut
  • Populism Declines
  • Depression ends
  • Gold in Canada, Alaska, and South Africa increase
    money supply
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