PHIL 160 Introduction to Ethics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: PHIL 160 Introduction to Ethics


1
PHIL 160Introduction to Ethics
  • Prof. Pete Graham

2
Organizational Information
  • Meeting Times
  • Lectures TTh 400 - 450
  • (Room Thompson Hall 104)
  • Discussion Sections Wednesdays
  • TAs
  • Josh DiPaolo
  • Jesse Fitts
  • Dan McGloin
  • Josh Moulton
  • Course Website TBA

3
Discussion Sections
  • There are twelve discussion sections
  • All are on Wednesday, two each at
  • 905 - 955
  • 1010 - 1100
  • 1115 - 1205
  • 1220 - 110
  • 125 - 215
  • 230 - 320

4
Course Overview
  • Two Goals
  • Provide an introduction to ethical theory
  • Hone analytical skills
  • Three Parts of the Course
  • preliminaries
  • moral theories
  • contemporary moral issues

5
Preliminaries
  • arguments
  • moral relativism
  • simple moral theories

6
Moral Theories
  • Consequentialism Utilitarianism
  • Jeremy Bentham
  • John Stuart Mill
  • Deontology
  • Immanuel Kant
  • Virtue Ethics
  • Aristotle

7
Contemporary Moral Issues
  • abortion
  • passive and active euthanasia
  • moral obligations to those in desperate need
  • moral obligations to non-human animals
  • morality of warfare

8
Assessment (I)
  • Three exams
  • Exam 1 10 of your total grade
  • Exam 2 30 of your total grade
  • Exam 3 30 of your total grade
  • Two short writing assignments
  • These will be very focused writing assignments
    designed to test not only your grasp of the
    material, but also your ability to present your
    ideas clearly and succinctly in written form.
  • The first writing assignment will be due half-way
    through the semester and will be worth 10 of
    your total grade.
  • The second writing assignment will be due toward
    the end of the semester and will be worth 20 of
    your total grade.

9
Assessment (II)
  • Exam Dates
  • First Exam September 23 (in less than 3 weeks!)
  • Second Exam November 2
  • Third Exam Final Exam Period
  • Exam Info
  • All exams will be in the evening
  • Times and rooms will be announced
  • No class during the regularly scheduled class
    time on exam days
  • Study Guides
  • Review Sessions
  • Weekly ungraded assignments

10
Assessment (III)
  • Discussion Sections
  • attendance is mandatory and essential to doing
    well in the course
  • it may sometimes happen that material not covered
    in lecture will be discussed in the discussion
    sections
  • attendance will be taken at each meeting
  • poor attendance will lower your grade
  • ( of section meetings missed/total of section
    meetings)(5 ) point deduction discussion
    section absences.
  • good attendance and active/substantial
    participation may raise your grade

11
Assessment (IV)
  • NO EXTRA CREDIT!

12
Course Readings
  • There is no required text
  • All readings will be available online
  • Philosophical writing is often dense, difficult,
    and (sometimes) dry
  • The reading assignments are often short
  • Read the assigned material closely more than once
    before the class in which it will be discussed.

13
Handouts
  • I will often post a handout for a lecture the
    night before the lecture.
  • Homework to be done prior to each lecture
  • Check the website for any announcements
  • Print out any handouts for the days lecture

14
Lecture Attendance
  • Attendance will be taken randomly in lecture.
  • Attendance Deduction ( of absences/total of
    times attendance is taken)(5) Lecture absence
    deduction

15
Part I - Preliminaries
  • Ethics is a branch of philosophy concerning
    questions such as
  • What morally ought we to do?
  • Normative ethics
  • Practical ethics
  • What is morally good and what is morally bad?
  • Theory of value
  • What is moral virtue and moral vice?
  • Excellences and deficiencies of moral character
  • The stock and trade of philosophy is arguments

16
Arguments
  • What is an argument?
  • An argument is a series of propositions meant to
    establish another proposition
  • The series of propositions are the arguments
    premises
  • The proposition those premises are offered in an
    attempt to establish is the arguments conclusion

17
Some Arguments
  • God is conceivable.
  • If God is conceivable, then God exists.
  • Therefore, God exists.
  • If God exists, then there is no unnecessary and
    undeserved suffering in the world.
  • It is not the case that there is no unnecessary
    and undeserved suffering in the world.
  • Therefore, it is not the case that God exists.

18
More Arguments
  1. You dont know that youre not dreaming.
  2. If you dont know that youre not dreaming, then
    you dont know that you have hands.
  3. Therefore, you dont know that you have hands.

19
Validity
  • In philosophy we are particularly interested in a
    special class of arguments, namely valid ones.
  • In philosophy, valid has a very specific
    meaning.
  • A valid argument is one for which it is
    impossible for all of its premises to be true and
    its conclusion false.
  • Another way of putting it a valid arguments
    premises entail its conclusion.
  • (The truth of the premises of a valid argument
    guarantee the truth of its conclusion.)

20
Soundness
  • An argument is sound if and only if
  • it is valid, and
  • its premises are actually true.
  • Every sound argument has a true conclusion.
  • Why?

21
Arguments
  • In philosophy we strive to construct valid
    arguments.
  • Why?
  • If an argument is valid then, to know whether we
    should accept the conclusion we need to determine
    only one thing--namely, whether its premises are
    true.
  • Why?
  • Because if its valid and its premises are true
    then we know that its conclusion must be true.
  • And if it is true, clearly we should believe it.
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PHIL 160 Introduction to Ethics

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Title: PHIL 160 Introduction to Ethics


1
PHIL 160Introduction to Ethics
  • Prof. Pete Graham

2
Organizational Information
  • Meeting Times
  • Lectures TTh 400 - 450
  • (Room Thompson Hall 104)
  • Discussion Sections Wednesdays
  • TAs
  • Josh DiPaolo
  • Jesse Fitts
  • Dan McGloin
  • Josh Moulton
  • Course Website TBA

3
Discussion Sections
  • There are twelve discussion sections
  • All are on Wednesday, two each at
  • 905 - 955
  • 1010 - 1100
  • 1115 - 1205
  • 1220 - 110
  • 125 - 215
  • 230 - 320

4
Course Overview
  • Two Goals
  • Provide an introduction to ethical theory
  • Hone analytical skills
  • Three Parts of the Course
  • preliminaries
  • moral theories
  • contemporary moral issues

5
Preliminaries
  • arguments
  • moral relativism
  • simple moral theories

6
Moral Theories
  • Consequentialism Utilitarianism
  • Jeremy Bentham
  • John Stuart Mill
  • Deontology
  • Immanuel Kant
  • Virtue Ethics
  • Aristotle

7
Contemporary Moral Issues
  • abortion
  • passive and active euthanasia
  • moral obligations to those in desperate need
  • moral obligations to non-human animals
  • morality of warfare

8
Assessment (I)
  • Three exams
  • Exam 1 10 of your total grade
  • Exam 2 30 of your total grade
  • Exam 3 30 of your total grade
  • Two short writing assignments
  • These will be very focused writing assignments
    designed to test not only your grasp of the
    material, but also your ability to present your
    ideas clearly and succinctly in written form.
  • The first writing assignment will be due half-way
    through the semester and will be worth 10 of
    your total grade.
  • The second writing assignment will be due toward
    the end of the semester and will be worth 20 of
    your total grade.

9
Assessment (II)
  • Exam Dates
  • First Exam September 23 (in less than 3 weeks!)
  • Second Exam November 2
  • Third Exam Final Exam Period
  • Exam Info
  • All exams will be in the evening
  • Times and rooms will be announced
  • No class during the regularly scheduled class
    time on exam days
  • Study Guides
  • Review Sessions
  • Weekly ungraded assignments

10
Assessment (III)
  • Discussion Sections
  • attendance is mandatory and essential to doing
    well in the course
  • it may sometimes happen that material not covered
    in lecture will be discussed in the discussion
    sections
  • attendance will be taken at each meeting
  • poor attendance will lower your grade
  • ( of section meetings missed/total of section
    meetings)(5 ) point deduction discussion
    section absences.
  • good attendance and active/substantial
    participation may raise your grade

11
Assessment (IV)
  • NO EXTRA CREDIT!

12
Course Readings
  • There is no required text
  • All readings will be available online
  • Philosophical writing is often dense, difficult,
    and (sometimes) dry
  • The reading assignments are often short
  • Read the assigned material closely more than once
    before the class in which it will be discussed.

13
Handouts
  • I will often post a handout for a lecture the
    night before the lecture.
  • Homework to be done prior to each lecture
  • Check the website for any announcements
  • Print out any handouts for the days lecture

14
Lecture Attendance
  • Attendance will be taken randomly in lecture.
  • Attendance Deduction ( of absences/total of
    times attendance is taken)(5) Lecture absence
    deduction

15
Part I - Preliminaries
  • Ethics is a branch of philosophy concerning
    questions such as
  • What morally ought we to do?
  • Normative ethics
  • Practical ethics
  • What is morally good and what is morally bad?
  • Theory of value
  • What is moral virtue and moral vice?
  • Excellences and deficiencies of moral character
  • The stock and trade of philosophy is arguments

16
Arguments
  • What is an argument?
  • An argument is a series of propositions meant to
    establish another proposition
  • The series of propositions are the arguments
    premises
  • The proposition those premises are offered in an
    attempt to establish is the arguments conclusion

17
Some Arguments
  • God is conceivable.
  • If God is conceivable, then God exists.
  • Therefore, God exists.
  • If God exists, then there is no unnecessary and
    undeserved suffering in the world.
  • It is not the case that there is no unnecessary
    and undeserved suffering in the world.
  • Therefore, it is not the case that God exists.

18
More Arguments
  1. You dont know that youre not dreaming.
  2. If you dont know that youre not dreaming, then
    you dont know that you have hands.
  3. Therefore, you dont know that you have hands.

19
Validity
  • In philosophy we are particularly interested in a
    special class of arguments, namely valid ones.
  • In philosophy, valid has a very specific
    meaning.
  • A valid argument is one for which it is
    impossible for all of its premises to be true and
    its conclusion false.
  • Another way of putting it a valid arguments
    premises entail its conclusion.
  • (The truth of the premises of a valid argument
    guarantee the truth of its conclusion.)

20
Soundness
  • An argument is sound if and only if
  • it is valid, and
  • its premises are actually true.
  • Every sound argument has a true conclusion.
  • Why?

21
Arguments
  • In philosophy we strive to construct valid
    arguments.
  • Why?
  • If an argument is valid then, to know whether we
    should accept the conclusion we need to determine
    only one thing--namely, whether its premises are
    true.
  • Why?
  • Because if its valid and its premises are true
    then we know that its conclusion must be true.
  • And if it is true, clearly we should believe it.
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