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Title: Enlightenment Author: Cobb County School District Last modified by: Jessica Gibson Created Date: 3/28/2007 12:57:53 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Enlightenment

  • Late 1600s-1700s

(No Transcript)
  • Late 1600s 1700s
  • people believed that a new scientific approach
    would explain the natural world AND human
  • Deism universe as a machine governed by fixed
    laws by God
  • God as Watchmaker
  • Natural Law a universal law that can be found by
    using reason
  • Denis Diderot edited the 1st encyclopedia which
    was a collection of essays written by famous
    people of the mid-1700s

Enlightenment Philosophers
  • Thomas Hobbes Believes natural law states that
    everyone should give up some rights to live under
    an absolute monarchy
  • John Locke (Eng) in 1690 in which he said that
    people have certain natural rights, or rights
    belonging to all humans from birth which include
    the rights life, liberty, and property
  • he greatly influenced Thomas Jefferson and the
    Declaration of Independence
  • Baron de Montesquieu (Fr) in which he stated his
    beliefs that govt should be equally divided
    among 3 branches of govt each having checks and
    balances over the other
  • greatly influenced James Madison and the

More Philosophers
  • Voltaire (Fr) in 1694 admired English form of
    govt freedom of press
  • I may not agree with a word you say, but I will
    defend to the death your right to say it.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau (Fr) in 1762 in which the
    people give up some of their individual rights to
    the general will, or will of the majority Social
    Contract the right to rule rests in the hands
    of the people
  • Led to French and American Revolutions

Enlightened Despots
  • Despot means absolute rulers
  • Monarch who made reforms that reflected the
  • Fredrick II (the Great) of Prussia, Joseph II of
    Austria Catherine II (the Great) of Russia
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