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JAPAN, CHINA, KOREA, VIETNAM, PHILIPPINES, INDIA AND AFRICA

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Title: JAPAN, CHINA, KOREA, VIETNAM, PHILIPPINES, INDIA AND AFRICA


1
CONTEMPORARY ASIA AND AFRICA
  • JAPAN, CHINA, KOREA, VIETNAM, PHILIPPINES, INDIA
    AND AFRICA

2
POST-WAR JAPAN
  • Douglas MacArthur assigned to the rebuilding of
    Japan
  • Democracy established

3
CHINA
  • Sun Yat-sen founder of the Guomintang
    (nationalist party of China)
  • Chiang Kai-shek takes over for Sun Yat-sen in
    1925, but was opposed to land reform and peasants
    flocked to his opponent
  • Mao Zedong communist leader of the peasants and
    used the Long March to unite all communists
    pushed Chiang Kai-shek off the mainland to the
    island of Taiwan Mao made China communist in 1949

4
Sun Yat-sen
Chiang Kai-shek
Mao Zedong
5
GREAT LEAP FORWARD
  • 5 Year Economic Plan established by Mao Zedong
  • 1959-1963- the plan was to focus on industry and
    agriculture and the hope was to rival the United
    States
  • Unfortunately, 1959 was a bad year and it is
    thought that 9 million starved that year, and by
    1963, 20 million starved

6
Deng Xiaoping
  • Led after Mao Zedong
  • Four Modernizationsfocused on agriculture,
    industry, science and military
  • allowed for some free enterprise
  • led to rapid economic growth in China
  • --these reforms led some people to want more
    freedoms, which led to protests like the
    Tiananmen Square Massacre

7
TIANANMEN SQUARE
  • Pro-democratic demonstration against the
    Communist government in China
  • June 5, 1989 worst day of violence
  • Total of 3,000 deaths

8
KOREAN WAR THE FORGOTTEN WAR
  • 1945- The U.N. split the peninsula at the 38th
    Parallel
  • June 1950 Communist North Korea crossed the 38th
    Parallel into South Korea
  • United States troops under the leadership of
    Douglas MacArthur and United Nations forces
    responded to the invasion
  • Allied forces were pushed to the Pusan Perimeter
    by September 1950

9
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10
  • MacArthur called for an amphibious invasion at
    Inchon to take pressure off Allied forces and to
    cut supply lines of the North Koreans
  • By November 1950 Allied forces had pushed the
    North Koreans almost to the Yalu River (boundary
    between North Korea and China)

11
  • Chinese forces crossed over the Yalu River to
    help N. Korea
  • MacArthur wanted to invade China, but Truman
    advised against it. MacArthur and Truman
    exchanged words and eventually MacArthur was
    fired.
  • Chinese and N. Korean forces were able to cross
    back across the 38th Parallel

12
  • Allied forces pushed back
  • Fighting stopped in 1951
  • Armistice signed in 1953 and the 38th Parallel
    was used to divide North and South Korea

13
THE VIETNAM WAR
  • Vietnam was part of French Indochina
  • Area was taken over by the Japanese in WWII, but
    reclaimed by the French after the war was over
  • Nationalist movement in the region against the
    French

14
  • Leader of the Nationalists- Ho Chi Minh
  • Led the war against the French in the late
    1940s influenced by communism
  • Ho Chi Minhs followers in North Vietnam were
    called the Vietminh
  • Ho Chi Minh was supported and financially backed
    by the Soviet Union
  • The United States backed the French

15
  • The Geneva Conference- divided Vietnam at the
    17th Parallel
  • North was now communist and leader was Ho Chi
    Minh (capitalHanoi) ties to China and USSR
  • South was democratic and president was Ngo Dinh
    Diem (capitalSaigon)

16
TIMELINE OF U.S. INVOLVEMENT
  • 1954- SUPPORTIVE OF THE FRENCH
  • 1956-1964- SENT MILITARY ADVISORS AND FINANCIAL
    AID
  • 1964- GULF OF TONKIN INCIDENT AND PRESIDENT
    JOHNSON GETS PERMISSION TO SEND IN COMBAT TROOPS
    WITH THE GULF OF TONKIN RESOLUTION
  • 1965- 1ST COMBAT TROOPS ARRIVE
  • 1965-1973- AMERICAN COMBAT TROOPS IN VIETNAM
  • PRESIDENT NIXON RESPONSIBLE FOR VIETNAMIZATION

17
UNITED STATES INVOLVEMENT
  • By 1957 Eisenhower sent in military advisors to
    help train South Vietnamese military
  • President Kennedy increased American involvement
    (financial aid)
  • South Vietnams army was ineffective against the
    Vietcong (South Vietnamese guerillas- also known
    as Charlie) which put pressure on the U.S. to
    increase its involvement

18
  • Diem turned out to be corrupt
  • Believed he pocketed much of the aid sent to them
    from US
  • US continued to support him
  • Openly persecuted Buddhists
  • Monks protesting persecution set selves on fire
    in public square
  • United States finally supported a coup to
    overthrow Diem in 1963

19
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20
  • 1964-Gulf of Tonkin Resolution US spy boat
    torpedoed, but US claimed two had been attacked,
    LB Johnson urged Congress to write blank check
  • President Johnson sent over troops to take on a
    lead military role
  • By 1967 war at a stalemate
  • North planned attack on Saigon on Tet, Vietnamese
    holiday (Tet Offensive)
  • North actually failed, lasted several weeks but
    they did not win
  • North used propaganda to create image of victory
  • However, US opinion of the war dropped
    dramatically because we suffered less casualties,
    but gained no land
  • War portrayed as unwinnable

21
  • U.S. forces tried to bomb the Ho Chi Minh Trail-
    supply route through Cambodia and Laos
  • Sparked protests Kent State and Jackson State
    students were shot by national guard

22
  • Paris Accords Jan 31, 1973
  • Brought US withdrawal and release of POWs
  • US pulls out- Vietnamization
  • North continues to take South
  • World watches dramatic rescue of US Embassy
    workers from the embassy rooftop
  • February 73 South fell to communism, Laos went
    peacefully slowly after

23
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24
NAPALM
MY LAI MASSACRE
HANOI HILTON
HANOI JANE
JOHN McCAIN- POW
25
CAMBODIA AND THE KHMER ROUGE
  • As a result of the communist takeover of Vietnam
    and because of the Ho Chi Minh Trail, communism
    filtered into Cambodia
  • Pol Pot established the Khmer Rouge, a communist
    regime in Cambodia
  • Ruled from 1975-1979
  • He began a genocide against the intelligencia and
    former political leaders of Cambodia
  • Killed approximately 1 million people before he
    was overthrown and placed under house arrest
  • Died in 1998 while still under house arrest

26
POL POT
THE KILLING FIELDS
27
PHILIPPINES
  • President Ferdinand Marcos was a corrupt leader
    who embezzled a huge amount of the national
    treasury for his own personal gain (1965-1986)
  • He was accused of having his political opponent,
    Benigno Aquino, murdered in 1983
  • In the 1986 election, the wife of the murdered
    opponent, Corazon Aquino, ran against Marcos and
    won. She became the first female democratically
    elected President of the Philippines. Stayed in
    power until 1992.
  • Marcos and his wife fled the Philippines and
    sought refuge in the U.S. They were arrested and
    served time in U.S prison. Ferdinand died in 1989
    and Imelda returned to the Philippines.

28
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29
INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT OF INDIA
  • Following WWII desire for independence from the
    British and the concern of Muslims and their
    place in India dominated by Hindus

30
INDEPENDENCE
  • Mohandas Gandhi- leader of the INC had been
    fighting for independence for many years and WWII
    forced Britain to address the issue
  • The last British viceroy of India carried out a
    plan to create an independent India in 1947
  • The British were persuaded because of a
    nonviolent resistance movement (passive
    resistance) led by Gandhi, who was eventually
    given the name Mahatma (Great Soul)

31
RESULTS OF INDIAN INDEPENDENCE
  • The agreement that created an independent India
    also established a two-part Pakistan
  • A Hindu upset over the partition assassinated
    Gandhi in 1948
  • In 1971, the eastern section of Pakistan became
    Bangladesh
  • The island of Ceylon was also granted
    independence and was eventually renamed Sri
    Lanka

32
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33
AFRICAN INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS
  • African independence efforts followed three
    general patterns
  • Peaceful transition to independence
  • Violent transition to independence or violence
    following the transition due to conflicts among
    Africans in the region
  • Areas where large European populations had
    settled in the colony faced conflicts such as
    resisting the desires of natives and the colonial
    powers plans to establish African majority rule

34
Peaceful Transition
  • Common in colonies that had small European
    populations and minimal tension among African
    groups in the colony
  • British West Africa is a good example
  • They were already using indirect rule so they
    just handed power over to the Africans

35
Violent Transition
  • Nigerias independence was delayed by complicated
    negotiations among African ethnic groups and
    eventually civil war erupted

36
Europeans were the obstacle
  • Algeria- French simply refused to consider
    independence. Finally in 1962, following a war
    that killed thousands of French soldiers and
    hundreds of thousands of Algerians, the country
    gained independence
  • South Africa gained independence after WWII, but
    by 1948 the government started apartheid
    (national policy of segregation). The policy
    ended in 1990.
  • Nelson Mandela led the movement against
    apartheid. He was imprisoned for several years.
  • President F.W. deKlerk ended apartheid and
    allowed for free elections which allowed Mandela
    to take over

37
continued
  • Kenya Europeans made up less than 1 of
    population, but had tremendous power
  • Jomo Kenyatta became the leader of the
    independence movement in Kenya
  • He was jailed by the British from 1953 to 1961
  • Became the Prime Minister of independent Kenya in
    1963
  • Encouraged Europeans to stay and invest in the
    country
  • Economically prosperous until mid-1970s, when
    the one-party system became corrupt. Corruption
    intensified after Kenyattas death in 1978.

38
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39
Rwandan Genocide
  • Rwanda and Burundi were given to Belgium
    according to the Treaty of Versailles.
  • The Tutsi (ethnic minority) were given
    preferential treatment by the Belgians.
  • The 1994 genocide was the slaughter of
    approximately 1 million Tutsi by the Hutu

40
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