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Organizing the New Government 1789-1809

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Title: Organizing the New Government 1789-1809


1
Organizing the New Government 1789-1809
2
The First President
  • April 30, 1789, inauguration of George Washington
    as 1st President in New York City (3 places),
    John Adams (VP)
  • Unanimous election Federalist party
  • Precedents needed to be set
  • Challenging Agendas faced them.

3
Loved by so many first in war, first in peace
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6
The First Congress
  • Bill of Rights
  • 2. Judiciary Act of 1789
  • 3. Cabinets formed

7
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9
Settling the Nations Debt
  • Hamiltons belief in federalism shaped his
    economic policy
  • Who would dominate the federal government and
    economic policy?
  • Policies designed to help and promote?

10
Hamiltons Economic Policy
  • 3 Main Points
  • Funding the Debt
  • Assumption of the Debt
  • Bank of the U.S.

11
Payment of Government Bonds
  • How much was the government in debt from the AM
    REV?
  • What did the government issue in exchange for
    loans?
  • Speculators stood to make a fortune, while
    ordinary citizens who had sold their bonds at a
    loss would suffer
  • What did Congress do with bonds (both those
    bought and sold?)

12
Assumption of Debt
  • Federal govt would take over state debts
  • Southern states had already paid off their share
    of the debt (Jefferson, Madison)
  • What saved this plan?

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14
The Bank Controversy
  • Most controversial part of Hamiltons plan
  • Two views of the Constitution
  • Strict construction vs. Loose construction
  • Hamilton - necessary and proper clause gives us
    the right vs. Jefferson not mentioned in Const,
    therefore not allowed)
  • Congress chartered the bank and Washington
    signed it into law in 1791 (20 years)

15
How to raise the money to pay off debt?
  • Tariffs
  • Excise Taxes (most controversially taxed item was
    _______)
  • Where would they put this money and why?

16
The Whiskey Rebellion - 1794
  • Over 6,000 men and women threatened city of
    Pittsburgh
  • Federal force of 13,000
  • Rebellion scattered, roughly 20 men captured,
    less convicted, all eventually pardoned
  • Legacy of GWs Response?

17
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18
Trouble on the Frontier
  • Native Americans fight expansion
  • Number of small victories in early 1790s
  • Little Turtle
  • Washington sent Anthony Wayne, to protect the
    frontier Treaty of Greenville
  • 1. Indian lands in Ohio and Indiana to US
  • 2. Ohio R. no longer boundary
  • 3. Indians received money and formal
    acknowledgment of land they still had

19
Washingtons 2nd term
  • The French Revolution
  • Citizen Genet
  • Impressment
  • Neutrality Act of 1793
  • Jays Treaty
  • Pinckneys Treaty
  • Farewell Address

20
The French Revolution
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23
What response did the Washington Government take
with the French Revolution?
24
Staying Neutral
  • Jays Treaty
  • Purpose of Treaty
  • Terms of Treaty
  • Legacy of the Treaty
  • Public Response
  • Pickneys Treaty
  • Spain shifted forces and joined France
  • Feared US alliance with GB would threaten Spains
    territory in North America
  • Boundary between US and FLA?
  • Also gave America Right of Deposit Port of New
    Orleans for trade w/o paying a duty

25
Washington says Goodbye
  • Precedents set?
  • Formal
  • Informal
  • Warnings in the Farewell Address????

26
Federalists v. Dem-Reps
  • Who were the leading Federalists?
  • Who were the leading Democratic-Republicans

Federalists Issue D-Rs
Federalism- Size of Government
France or Britain
Banking Policy
Region of Nation
Socio-Economics
Interpretation of Cons.
Jobs
27
The Election of 1796
  • 1st real political party competition for
    President --- Why? What were causes?
  • John Adams and Thomas Pinckney vs. Thomas
    Jefferson and Aaron Burr
  • Adams received most electoral votes with
    Jefferson being the runner up
  • Thomas Jefferson became V.P.

28
1796 Election Results (16 states in the Union)

John Adams Massachusetts Federalist 71 51.4
Thomas Jefferson Virginia Democratic-Republican 68 49.3
Thomas Pinckney South Carolina Federalist 59 42.8
Aaron Burr New York Democratic-Republican 30 21.7
Samuel Adams Massachusetts Federalist 15 10.9
Oliver Ellsworth Connecticut Federalist 11 8.0
George Clinton New York Democratic-Republican 7 5.1
Other - - 15 10.9
Total Number of Electors 138
Total Electoral Votes Cast 276
Number of Votes for a Majority 70
29
1796 Election Results
Adams
Jefferson
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32
Adams Presidency- foreign policy challenges
  • What was Frances response to the Jay Treaty?
  • Adams sent 3 diplomats to France to discuss this
    and try to reach a resolution
  • XYZ Affair
  • Who?
  • What were the Conditions for meeting with France
  • Adams and Federalists reactions
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.

33
XYZ Affair and Resentment of foreigners
Alien Act Sedition Acts

34
Opposition to the Acts
  • Thomas Jefferson KY resolution
  • James Madison VA resolution
  • Violation of Constitution abuse of power by
    Federal govt

35
The Judiciary
  • What were the Midnight Judges?
  • Chief Justice John Marshall Judicial Review
    expanded role of Supreme Court
  • set forth a number of loose constructionist based
    decisions

36
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38
1800 Election Results (16 states in the Union)

Thomas Jefferson Virginia Democratic-Republican 73 73 52.9
Aaron Burr New York Democratic-Republican 73 73 52.9
John Adams Massachusetts Federalist 65 65 47.1
Charles Pinckney South Carolina Federalist 64 64 46.4
John Jay New York Federalist 1 1 0.7

Total Number of Electors 138
Total Electoral Votes Cast 276
Number of Votes for a Majority 70
39
1800 Election Results
Adams
Jefferson
40
1800 Election Results (Into the House of
Representatives!!) ? 1 vote for each State ?

Thomas Jefferson Virginia Democratic-Republican 10 10 62.5
Aaron Burr New York Democratic-Republican 4 4 25.0
Blank ------- 2 2 12.5
41
Thomas Jefferson
  • We are all Federalists, We are all Republicans
  • A Common Man Approach

42
Key Issues Stance of Federalists Stance of D/Rs Jefferson Did
Interpretation of Constitution
Federalism
Size of Government
Individual Rights
Focus of Economy
National Debt
Foreign Policy
43
Was he really a Strict Constructionist
44
Louisiana Purchase
  • How Spain gave Louisiana territory to Napoleon
    in 1800, France sold it to the U.S.
  • Why Jefferson looking to secure U.S. territory
    and expand west
  • Frances gain cash to fund war in Europe

45
Louisiana Purchase
  • Jefferson instructed Livingston and Monroe to
    purchase only New Orleans.
  • France offered the whole territory for 15 million
    dollars (approx. 3 cents p/acre)
  • Any key problems with this move?

46
Lewis and Clark Expedition
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