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History of Computers and the Internet

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300 BC: Invention of the Abacus in Babylonia 1632: Wilhelm Schickard invents first mechanical calculator. Never used beyond prototype. 1801: Joseph-Marie Jacquard ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: History of Computers and the Internet


1
History of Computers and the Internet
2
History of Computers
  • 300 BC Invention of the Abacus in Babylonia
  • 1632 Wilhelm Schickard invents first mechanical
    calculator. Never used beyond prototype.
  • 1801 Joseph-Marie Jacquard invents programmable
    loom. Works by reading punch cards.
  • 1832 Charles Babbage begins work on the
    Analytical Engine. General use computer that used
    punch cards.

3
History of Computers Continued
  • 1941 Konrad Zuse develops first electronic
    general use calculator.
  • 1943 British government completes Colossus, a
    code breaking computer.
  • 1964 IBM unveils the IBM 360. Quickly becomes
    standard computer for institutions.

4
History of Computers Continued
  • 1968 Doug Engelbart develops a word processing
    application.
  • 1975 MITS Altair 8800 is featured on Popular
    Mechanics cover as the 1st personal computer
  • 1975 Bill Gates and Paul Allen write BASIC for
    Altair 8800. Represents beginning of Microsoft
  • 1979 First spreadsheet program, Visical, is
    written.
  • 1984 The Apple Macintosh is released.

5
The Internet
  • What is the Internet?
  • Millions of interconnected computers
  • A Network of Networks
  • A user at any one computer, with permission, can
    have access to any other computer
  • Networking 1st developed by the Advanced Research
    Projects Agency

6
History of the Internet
  • 1958 ARPA established
  • 1963 Time Sharing was developed
  • 1969 ARPANet goes online
  • 1979 Colleges begin developing internets between
    other schools
  • 1991 Tim Berners-Lee develops the WWW.
  • 1993 WWW shows a more then 300,000 growth in
    traffic in one year.

7
Ways to Connect to the Internet
  • Dial-up provided by an ISP (Internet Service
    Provider) though a modem
  • Satellite connections
  • Generally used in areas w/o DSL
  • DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) provides broadband
    connection
  • (70 times faster then Dial-up)
  • Wireless Internet Connections (varies)

8
the Internet vs. the WWW They are NOT the same!!
The Internet
The WWW
  • Millions of computers
  • Many networks (or smaller internets)
  • Many varieties of languages used (protocols)
  • Millions of computers
  • Way of accessing information contained on the
    Internet
  • Only uses HPPT protocol

The World Wide Web utilizes Web Browsers
(Internet Explorer, Firefox, etc.) to search web
pages that are linked though hyperlinks. Web
pages can contain graphics, sound, text and video
9
Searching the WWW
  • WWW searched using Web Browsers
  • ie Internet Explorer, Firefox, Safari
  • Three main ways
  • Address Bar
  • Hyperlinks
  • Search Engines

10
The Universal Resource Locator
  • Unique address for website or webpage. Entered in
    the address bar of a window.
  • Example http//www.yahoo.com
  • http written in the Hypertext Transfer
    Protocol
  • www. this site is located on the World Wide Web
  • yahoo this is the domain name (tells your
    computer which computer to request the file from)
  • .com extension (usually describes the type
    site)

11
Common URL Extensions
  • .com used for most commercial sites
  • .edu designates an educational website
  • .gov a site operated by the government
  • .org a website created by an organization
    (usually not for profit)
  • .net a site found on a particular network

12
Surfing the Internet
  • Searching the Internet can become very
    frustrating. Here are some steps that may
    increase your effectiveness at searching the
    Internet
  • 1) Work out exactly what you want to know
  • Write down key words
  • Think of synonyms you could also search for
  • 2) Know your search engine of choice
  • 3) Understand Boolean Basics (if used by your
    search engine)
  • 4) Know how to evaluate an internet source

13
Protecting Yourself on the Internet
  • Downloading the transmission of a file on one
    computer to another computer
  • Malware (Malicious Software) any program, file,
    or code that performs malicious actions on the
    target system without the users express consent.
  • - Use and Update Anti-Virus
  • - Keep important info on a computer not
    connected to the internet, or on a computer that
    employees strong firewalls
  • - Do NOT open unknown e-mail

14
Protecting Yourself on the Internet
  • E-mail about as privet as a postcard. Very
    little protection through the Law
  • SPAM unsolicited e-mail
  • - prevent SPAM by deleting messages from
    unknown people
  • - do not give out e-mail on internet forms
  • - if receive messages from, asked to betaken
    off mailing list
  • http//www.onguardonline.gov/default.aspx

15
Types of Malware
  1. Spyware/Adware- place tracking cookies on your
    computer that track surfing habits
  2. Keylogger- programs that track every key stroke
    that is made on a certain computer
  3. Trojan Horse- appears to be a beneficial program,
    but once installed begins infecting other files.
    May also install a backdoor.
  4. Virus- is attached to another legitimate program.
    As that program runs, so does the virus.
  5. Worms- self-replicating program then sending
    copies of itself to other computers on the
    network without human intervention.

16
Warning Signs of a Computer Infection
  • Your computer starts running sluggishly.
  • It shuts down unexpectedly or crashes frequently.
  • It experiences memory problems or runs out of
    disc space.
  • Unusual files or directories appear on your
    system.
  • Strange messages appear on your screen.

17
  • http//www.pbs.org/nerds/timeline/network.html
    -brief description on development of the computer
    and internet
  • http//www.history.com/encyclopedia.do?articleId2
    12808 History Channel excellent overview the
    history of the internet
  • http//www.computerhistory.org/timeline/?category
    cmptr Year by Year overview of the development
    of the computer
  • http//www.computerhistory.org/internet_history/
    -Year by Year overview of the development of the
    internet
  • http//www.crunchers.bc.ca/library/history.html
    -History of the development of the internet
    written in very simple laymans terms
  • http//www.cnri.reston.va.us/what_is_internet.html
    -government developed document describing the
    development of the internet. Uses some complex
    language.
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