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The Renaissance and Reformation


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Title: The Renaissance and Reformation

The Renaissance and Reformation
  • Re-birth of culture from ancient Rome
  • Arts
  • Literature
  • Philosophy
  • Science
  • Learning
  • Wealthy Cities
  • Change in how people viewed themselvesindividual
  • Focus on experience here and now
  • Ideal person One with many talents

Italian Renaissance
  • Main ideal humanism, the study of classical
    culture and focus on worldly subjects rather than
    on religious issues
  • Move away from religion
  • Studied humanitieseducation inspires creativity

  • Define humanism
  • Humanism intellectual movement at the heart of
    the Italian Renaissance that focused on worldly
    subjects rather than on religious issues.
  • Humanists were usually Christians who believed
    that the individual in the here and now had an
    important role to play.
  • Education was important.
  • Emphasis on individual achievement.
  • Emphasis on classical Greek and Roman texts.

Italian Geniuses of Renaissance Art Leonardo
  • Leonardo da Vinci (1452) artist (Mona Lisa, The
    Last Supper), inventor ( helicopter,
    weapons, music box, many more), architect,
    botanist, musician, anatomy, optics, engineering.

Italian Geniuses of Renaissance Art Leonardo
La Giaconda The Mona Lisa Louvre Museum, Paris
Italian Geniuses of Renaissance Art Leonardo
Italian Geniuses of Renaissance Art Leonardo
Italian Geniuses of Renaissance Art - Michelangelo
  • Michelangelo Italian painter and sculptor.
    Total realism in art. Pieta and David. Murals on
    the ceilings of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican.

Italian Geniuses of Renaissance Art - Michelangelo
The Pieta
Italian Geniuses of Renaissance Art - Michelangelo
The David Florence, Italy
Italian Geniuses of Renaissance Art - Michelangelo
(No Transcript)
Italian Genius of Renaissance Writing -
  • Machiavelli published a book in 1513, The Prince.
    Theorized about how a perfect ruler would govern.
  • Stressed that the end justifies the means. Urged
    rulers to use whatever means necessary to achieve
    their goals.

Northern Renaissance
  • Spread to Spain, France, Germany, and England
  • Also studied the humanities
  • Desiderius Erasmus translate the Bible from
    Latin into the vernacular,
  • Thomas Moore Utopia pushed for social change
  • Printing revolution created more booksmore
    literacy and learning

Genius Writers of the Northern Renaissance
  • William Shakespeare England. Playwright between
    1590-1613. Wrote about the actual human
    condition of his time.
  • Cervantes Spain. Novelist. Wrote Don Quixote.

The Printing Revolution
  • Printing Press allowed new ideas to spread more
    easily. Spread from China to Middle East to
  • Gutenberg invented a new type of printing press.
    Used movable type.
  • Books suddenly within reach of ordinary person.

Protestant Reformation
Protesant Reformation
  • 1500s, called for reform of the Christian Church
  • People who joined the reform called themselves
    Protestants, for those who protested papal
    (pope) authority.

Abuses in the Church
  • Beginning in the late Middle Ages, the Church had
    become increasingly caught up in worldly affairs.
  • Competed with Italian princes for political
  • Fought long wars to protect the Papal States
    against invaders.
  • Promoted the sale of indulgences
  • Popes led lavish lifestyles and spent a great
    deal of money on the arts.
  • Increased fees for services such as weddings and
    baptisms to finance worldly projects

Luthers Protest
  • 1517
  • Martin Luther triggered a revolt
  • 95 Theses, 95 arguments against indulgences
  • Spread throughout Europe
  • Excommunicated from the church and declared an
    outlaw by the Holy Roman Emperor
  • Many people followed Luther
  • 1521 renounced the authority of the pope

The Teachings of Martin Luther
  • Salvation is achieved through faith alone.
  • Luther rejected Church doctrine that
    good deeds were necessary for salvation.
  • The Bible is the sole source of religious truth.
  • Luther denied other authorities, such
    as Church councils or the pope.
  • All Christians have equal access to God through
    faith and the Bible.
  • Luther rejected the idea that priests
    and Church officials had special powers.

Luthers Widespread Support
  • Luthers ideas spread quickly in northern Germany
    and Scandinavia.
  • Many clergy saw Luthers reforms as the answer to
    Church corruption.
  • German princes hoped to throw off the rule of
    both the Church and the Holy Roman emperor.
  • Germans supported Luther because of feelings of
    national loyalty.
  • Peasants hoped that Luther would support social
    and economic change.

John Calvin
  • Most important supporter of Martin Luther
  • Preached predestination
  • In 1541, Calvin set up a theocracy in Geneva.
  • Late 1500s, Calvinism had taken root in Germany,
    France, the Netherlands, England, and Scotland.
  • In several of these countries, Calvinists faced
    opposition and persecution from other religious

Reformation Ideas Spread
Radical Reformers
  • As the Reformation continued, hundreds of new
    Protestant sects sprang up.
  • Even more radical than those of Luther and
  • Anabaptists
  • Abolish private property.
  • Use violence to speed up judgment day.
  • Religious tolerance and separation of Church and

English Reformation
1509 King Henry marries his dead brothers
widow, Princess Catherine
1527 Henry wants to marry his mistress, Anne
Boleyn, and asks the pope to annul his marriage
to Catherine
The pope refuses!
Henry, upset by the pope, broke away from the
Catholic church and created the Church of
England, which he ruled.
Religious Turmoil in England
  • 1547 Henry VIII dies, leaving behind 2 daughters
    and 1 son, along with his 6th wife
  • Edward VI, at 10, becomes king he and his
    advisors remain Protestant
  • 1555 Edward dies Mary Tudor becomes queen and
    returns to her Catholic routes
  • 1558 Mary dies and Elizabeth I becomes queen
    creates a compromise for Catholics and Protestants

6 Wives of Henry VIII
  • Catherine of Aragon
  • Daughter
  • 1509-1533
  • Divorced
  • Anne Boleyn
  • Daughter
  • 1533-1536
  • Beheaded

  • Jane Seymour
  • 1536-1537
  • Died after having son
  • Anne of Cleves
  • 1537 Jan-July
  • Divorced

  • Kathryn Howard
  • 1540-1542
  • Beheaded
  • Katherine Parr
  • 1543-1547
  • Widowed

Catholic Reformation
  • As Protestant Reformation took place reform also
    took place in the Catholic church
  • Leader Pope Paul III
  • 1530s and 1540s revived moral authority in church
  • End corruption in papacy

Catholic Reformation
  • To accomplish these goals, Pope Paul III
  • Called the Council of Trent to establish the
    direction that reform should take
  • Strengthened the Inquisition
  • Recognized a new religious order, the Jesuits, to
    combat heresy and spread the Catholic faith

Widespread Perscution
  • During this period of heightened religious
    passion, both Catholics and Protestants fostered
  • Catholics killed Protestants and Protestants
    killed Catholics.
  • Between 1450 and 1750, tens of thousands of
    people, mostly women, died as victims of witch
  • Jews were forced to live in ghettos or expelled
    from Christian lands and their books and
    synagogues burned.