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Title: Islamic%20World


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Islamic World
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  • Islam
  • - Ancient religion of 1.5
  • billion people
  • - Diversity of beliefs,
  • practices, and politics
  • - Modernists, traditionalist
  • and orthodox (80-85?)
  • Islamism (salafi Islam, fundamentalism) (15-20?)
  • Islam must have political power and a state
  • Response to European colonialism
  • Reject modernism and turn to Islam
  • But no unanimity about democracy
  • Jihadism (salafiyya jihadiyya) (lt1?) 15 Mill.
  • Extremist version of Islamism
  • No gradual implementation or political process
  • Only violence can recreate an idealized Islamic
    state called the Caliphate

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Pre-Islamic Religion
  • Byzantine Christianity, Judaism, Zoroastrianism
  • PredecessorBedouin tribes (polytheist, animistic
    nomads)
  • Local tribal deities, numerous spirits, angels,
    demons, fairies
  • Meccas Kaba housed the Black Stone and images
    of 360 gods and goddesses and relics

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The Formation of Early Islam
  • Invitation to Medina
  • Muhammad in Medina
  • Early Battles for control of Mecca
  • The Last Years of Muhammad

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Life of Muhammad
  • Muhammad born in Mecca in 570
  • Orphaned as a young boy and taken in by his
    unclea camel driver for caravans
  • In mid-twenties marries widow trader
  • While in the desert, he hear Gabriels call to be
    a prophet of Allah Night of Power
  • He saw himself as the final revelation of both
    previous traditions Judaism and Christianity

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Muhammads Five Pillars of Faith
  1. Confession of faith (shahadah)
  2. Prayers five times a day (salaht)
  3. Almsgiving (zakaht)
  4. Observance of fasting and Ramadan (sawm)
  5. Making a hajj to Mecca

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Origins of the Kaaba
  • Islamic tradition states that the Kaaba was built
    by Abraham and Ishmael as a reminder of the links
    between Muslims and Jews.
  • It is also believed to be the site of the place
    where Abraham was planning on sacrificing Isaac

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Muhammad left his hometown and moved to Medina
(hijrah) in 622. After converting Medina, he
returned to Mecca and destroyed the idols in the
Kaaba.
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Quran recitation
  • Beliefs about Quran- Written in Heaven,
    revealed to Muhammad, surpassing all other
    scriptures
  • Nature of God Allah, angels, jinn,
  • Predestination fatalism vs freedom and
    responsibilty
  • Eschatology final judgment of the soul

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Under Muhammad 622-632
632-661
661-733
Spread of Islam in just over a century
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Expansion of Islam
Paralleled the expansion of Christianity. Jihadh
oly war and internal struggle over sin There
wasnt much difference between holy wars from
both Christianity and Islam Conversion wasnt so
much forced as much as the advantageousness of
being within Islam.
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Factors slowing Islamic spread
  • Constantinople and Greek fire
  • Charles Martel (the Hammer) from Tours

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Divisions within Islam
  • After Muhammads death several denominations
    developed within Islam
  • Sunnithe tradition of the Prophet (the orthodox
    90 of Islam who believe in election from within
    the faith)
  • Shiitesclaim that they are descendents of Ali
    and only Shiites should be rulers

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The First Three Caliphs or Rashidin Sustain the
Salaf The Community of Islam as it was under
Muhammed
Abu Bakr 632-34
Umar 634-44
Uthman 644-656
Ali 656-661
Ali grew up with Muhammed and is revered by Sunni
Muslims as the last of the four Rightly Guided
Caliphs and an authority on the Qur'an and
Islamic Law.
Shi'a consider him the First Imam appointed by
the Prophet Muhammad and the first rightful
caliph. Ali was the cousin and son-in-law of
Muhammad. SHIA is short for ši at Ali "the party
of Ali". Shia Muslims adhere to the teachings of
the Prophet Muhammad and the religious guidance
of his family who they refer to as Ahl al-Bayt.
Ali is killed by the followers of Uthman in a
Civil War and the Umayyads rule the Caliphate.
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Islamic Theology
  • One God with many heavenly figures
  • Messengers, jinns (between humans and angels)
  • Predestinationwithin limits
  • Eschatologyafter death one waits for the end
    time and then one is judged based upon works
  • Muslims go to mosques on Friday where imam
    preaches
  • Polygamy and second-class relationship
  • No pork, birds, donkeys, etc.
  • Jihaddual nature of personal and defensive wars

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Significance of Karbala 680 (Husayn)
He refused to swear allegiance to Yazid, the
second Umayyad Caliph. He tried to travel from
Medina to Kufa but was surrounded by forces loyal
to Yazid in the desert at a place now known as
Karbala. Outnumbered, most of the family of
Mohammad are slaughtered.
  • Muharram, first month of the Islamic
    calendar. Muslims commemorate the martyrdom of
    Husayn, (Imam) the grandson of the Prophet
    Mohammad and spiritual leader of the Shi'a
    people.

Karbala
The captive women and children of the family of
Mohammad are paraded in
chains from town to town. This contributed to the
end of Yazid's rule. The tragedy played an
enormous role in the development of Shi'a
identity. The story of Husayn and the killing of
the family of Mohammad heavily influenced the
rapid spread of Shi'a Islam.
London
Ashura, the 10th day of Muharram commemorating
the day of the massacre.
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Abbasid Dynasty 750-1258
Shifted the capital from Damascus to Baghdad.
Went into decline with the rise to power of the
Turkish army it had created, the Mamluks.
Their rule was finally ended in 1258, when Hulagu
Khan, the Mongol conqueror, sacked Baghdad. While
they continued to claim authority in religious
matters from their base in Egypt, the dynasty's
secular authority had ended.
23
Spread of trade and culture
  • Islamic traders North Africa (salt, slaves, gold,
    etc.)
  • Timbuktu, Damascus, Baghdad, Cordoba, Cairogreat
    centers of power, libraries, and learning
  • Surpassed Western Christendom in wealth,
    education, libraries, arts and culture
  • With the Mongol invasions in 1258 the tide began
    to turn
  • Islamic Culture multicultural (Arab and non-Arab)

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Islamic Art and Architecture
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Great Mosque of Cordoba, Spain 784-787
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Alhambra, Spain
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Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem687-691
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Sufipurification through physical sensation of
dance and music N.B. Recall the differences
between the East (emotional) and the West
(logical)
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Whirling Dervishes
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The Clash of Civilizations
  • Modernity, the Palestinian problem, and
    terrorism are the central issues facing Islam
    today. How these issues play themselves out will
    determine much of our futures.
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