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The Ottoman Empire From Osman to the Young Turks

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Readings M.E. & Islamic World Reader Origins of Islam, excerpts from Qu ran, the Caliphate, schism, various early dynasties, The Ottoman, Safavid, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Ottoman Empire From Osman to the Young Turks


1
The Ottoman EmpireFrom Osman to the Young Turks
  • Spath 351 CPME

http//euroheritage.net/serbscroatsbosnians.shtml
2
Readings M.E. Islamic World Reader Origins
of Islam, excerpts from Quran, the Caliphate,
schism, various early dynasties, The Ottoman,
Safavid, and Mughal Empires,   In Cleveland
Tanzimat period of the Ottoman Empire
(1839-1876).
3
Today Ottoman Empire (end of 13th c.
1922) We will cover up to the turn of the 20th
century Big Questions - What happened? How did
the empire change? - Why was the Ottoman Empire
so dominant? - Why did it decline? - Why is
this important to contemporary ME
politics? Where are We Going? - Thursday
Colonialism - Monday (9/21) WWI, Inter-War
Years, Ideological Trends
4
  • But first
  • Rise and Decline of Muslim Caliphate (and
    associated dynasties)
  • Feudalism among Muslim societies
  • Two sets of elites (military and religious)
  • Ottomans, Safavids, Mughals became dominant after
    Mongol Empire. Why?
  • Legacy of Mongols
  • Feudalism around agrarianism
  • Increased revenue from trade
  • Gunpowder
  • Strategies of Governance

5
The Gunpowder Empires
6
  • Why were they dominant?
  • Mongol Legacy
  • Agrarianism
  • Trade Revenue
  • Gunpowder
  • Governing Strategies

7
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8
  • The Ottomans
  • Started with Osman and his son Orhan
  • Gazi Tradition
  • Pragmatic Considerations

9
  • Ottoman Rule
  • Gaza
  • Centralization of different kinds
  • Toleration of local customs
  • Dynastic Succession
  • Devshirme Levy
  • Three-level ruling elite

10
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11
The Ottoman Empire
12
  • 18th Century
  • Decline
  • Decentralization
  • External Forces

13
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14
  • 19th Century Towards Consolidation and
    Re-centralization
  • Selim III
  • Muhammad
  • Ali
  • Mahmud II

15
  • Discussion Tanzimat and Its Effects
  • Reorganization continuation of reforms
  • Focus on more than military and bureaucracy,
    also on society
  • Rate of Change was faster
  • Comprehensive Education Reforms
  • Huge land reform changes increased private
    ownership
  • Legal reforms why? Attempted to make ottoman
    law appropriate for Europeans to lift
    Capitulations secular courts civil code
    developed nationality law gave more control to
    millets

16
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