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Section 2: Empire Building in Africa


Chapter 21 Section 2: Empire Building in Africa West Africa Europeans were interested in; Peanuts, timber, hides and palm oil. Previous Europeans have profited from ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Section 2: Empire Building in Africa

Chapter 21
  • Section 2 Empire Building in Africa

West Africa
  • Europeans were interested in
  • Peanuts, timber, hides and palm oil.
  • Previous Europeans have profited from the slave
    trade, but by the late 1800s it have virtually
  • As European interest in trade grew, so did
    tensions with governments in this area.
  • In 1874 Great Britain annexed SG30 the Gold Coast
    (Ghana) and not long after established a
    protectorate over Nigeria.
  • By 1900 France added French West Africa
    (Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, French Guinea, Ivory
    Coast, Burkina Faso, Benin and Niger to their
  • In addition Germany took control of Togo,
    Cameroon, German Southwest Africa (Namibia), and
    German East Africa (Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi).

North Africa
  • As the Ottoman Empire declined, Egypt sought
    independence. Mohammad Ali seized power and
    established a separate Egyptian state.
  • Britain became interested in Egypt after the Suez
    canal was constructed, buying the Egyptian shares
    in 1875.
  • When an Egyptian army revolt began over foreign
    influence in 1881, Britain suppressed it and
    assumed control.
  • In 1914 Egypt was made a British protectorate.
  • 1898, British troops seized Sudan
  • 1879-1912, France established control over
    Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco.
  • 1896, Italy attempts to conquer Ethiopia and was
  • 1911, Italy seized Turkish Tripoli (Libya).

Central Africa
  • David Livingston spent 30 years exploring
    uncharted (by Europeans) African regions. SG32
  • His primary goal was to find a navigable river
    that would open up Central Africa to European
    Commerce and to Christianity.
  • Henry Stanley was sent to find the explorer after
    Livingstons disappearance. SG32
  • After Livingstons death in 1873, Stanley
    remained in Africa to carry on the explorers
  • Stanley encouraged the British colonize the Congo
    Basin, when they were not interested he turned to
    King Leopold of Belgium. By 1876 Belgium
    controlled the area.
  • France occupied areas further north, French
    Equatorial Africa (Chad, C.A.R., Republic of
    Congo, Gabon).

East Africa
  • 1885, Germany and Great Britain were in a rivalry
    over East Africa.
  • Germany was late to join in on imperialism, Otto
    von Bismarck had not initially valued colonies.
  • Along with Germany and Great Britain, Portugal
    and Belgium also had claims.
  • The Berlin Conference was held between 1884 and
    1885 to resolve differences and partition Africa.
  • No African delegations were present.

South Africa
  • The Boer Republics
  • After the Napoleonic Wars the British seized
    South Africa from the Dutch.
  • Boers, descendants of Dutch colonists, had a
    population of 200,000 in 1865.
  • By the 1830s the Boers were disgusted with
    British rule and moved further inland,
    establishing their own republics, Orange Free
    State and the Transvaal. SG34
  • The Boers believe in white supremacy and made no
    place for non-whites in their society, creating
    reservations for them.

South Africa
  • Cecil Rhodes
  • Highly influential on British policy in Africa.
  • Rhodes became rich from gold and diamond
  • He gained control of territory that he named
    Rhodesia (Zimbabwe).
  • Had the goal of connecting British colonies
    across Africa by railroad.
  • His ambitions eventually led to his downfall,
    after discovering that he planned to overthrow
    Boer governments in S. Africa he was forced to
    resign his position. SG34

South Africa
  • The Boer War
  • The removal of Rhodes did not prevent war.
  • The conflict continued from 1899-1902.
  • The British burned crops and forced Boer women
    and children into detention camps where 20,000
  • The British eventually won, but the cost was very
  • An independent Union of South Africa was formed
    out of the Cape Colony and Boer Republics.
  • To appease Boers the British agreed that only
    whites, with a few propertied Africans, could

Effects of Imperialism
  • Colonial Rule in Africa SG35
  • European nations ruled their African territories,
    much as they did their colonies in SE Asia.
  • Indirect rule was used generally by the British.
  • The system was basically a fraud as European
    administrators made nearly every decision, which
    local government serving only to enforce them.
  • The system maintained the old African elites,
    leading to class and tribal tensions.
  • Most other European nations focused on direct
  • The French practiced a system that sought to
    assimilate new peoples into French culture.

Effects of Imperialism
  • Rise of African Nationalism
  • A new class of leaders emerged in Africa,
    educated in colonial schools or in Western
  • This class admired the west and often came to
    dislike their own homeland. The also came to
    dislike colonial policy as it was not democratic
    or free.
  • The peasants or poor were often put to hard labor
    for British interests.
  • The middle class struggled to get work that paid
    a fair salary.
  • Europeans treated most Africans will little
    respect and fostered further dislike between
    rulers and ruled.
  • As time went on Africans began to organize and
    push for independence.