Sub-Sahara Africa: The Land - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Sub-Sahara Africa: The Land

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Sub-Sahara Africa: The Land Ch. 20 Sec. 1 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sub-Sahara Africa: The Land


1
Sub-Sahara Africa The Land
  • Ch. 20 Sec. 1

2
How Much Do You Know about AFRICA??
  • The land area of the U.S. fits into the land area
    of Africa a little over three times
  • FALSE- over four times!
  • Africa is composed most of desert, jungle, and
    some grassland.
  • FALSE- 25 desert, 10 jungle, 55 grassland

3
How Much Do You Know about AFRICA??
  • 3. Lions, giraffes, tigers, and many other
    wild animals are native to Africa.
  • FALSE- no tigers (only in Asia)
  • The cultures of Africa are very similar.
  • FALSE- about 3,000 ethnic groups!
  • 5. Most of Africa experiences four seasons each
    year.
  • FALSE- mostly tropical year round

4
How Much Do You Know about AFRICA??
  • Africa is one of the largest countries in the
    world.
  • FALSE- 2nd largest continent
  • The Afro is a hair style from Africa
  • FALSE- originated in U.S.
  • There are very few tribes left in Africa today.
  • FALSE- many, many, many tribes today

5
How Much Do You Know about AFRICA??
  • Outside of South Africa, there are very few
    ethnic problems in Africa.
  • FALSE- leaders overthrown in Uganda, Nigeria,
    Angola, Ethiopia, Sudan, Somalia
  • Africa is a poor land with few resources.
  • FALSE- lots of water, 70 of worlds diamonds
  • The people in Africa live in huts.
  • FALSE- all types of housing from huts to modern
    skyscrapers

6
How Much Do You Know about AFRICA??
  • The male lion is the best hunter of all African
    cats.
  • FALSE- Female lion called Queen of Savanna
  • Africa has no early history or any advanced
    civilizations.
  • FALSE- Egyptians no written record of others for
    a while
  • 14. The largest river in the world is the Nile.
  • FALSE- longest river

7
How Much Do You Know about AFRICA??
  • Most Africans speak the same language.
  • FALSE- speak tribal or European lang.

8
Sub-Sahara Africa The Land
  • Ch. 20 Sec. 1

9
A Satellite View
10
The African Plateau
11
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12
Highland Features
  • Plateaus make a series of steps? make up most of
    Africa
  • Edges of plateaus are escarpments (cliffs)
  • Most are lt20 miles from coast (Map on p. 501)
  • Hard to travel inland from coast (bad for
    exploration)

13
Highland Features
  • Rivers plunge down escarpments making cataracts
    (waterfalls)

Victoria Falls b/w Zambia Zimbabwe
14
Highland Features
  • Africa has highest overall elevation than any
    other continent
  • But still few mountains
  • Mts. included in Eastern highlands
  • Ethiopian Highlands, and volcanoes Mt.
    Kilimanjaro and Mt. Kenya

15
Mt. Kilimanjaro 19,330 ft in Tanzania Highest
Free-Standing Mountain in the world
Mt. Kenya 17,057 ft in Kenya
16
Mt. Kenya
17
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18
Highland features
  • Ruwenzori Mts.
  • Divide Uganda Dem. Rep. of the Congo
  • Covered in snow and clouds
  • Drakensberg Range
  • South Africa
  • Lots of national parks, wetlands

19
Ruwenzori Mts. 16,761 ft.
Ice Cap on Mount Margherita.Africas 3rd tallest
mountain
20
Drakensberg Range 11,420 ft.
- Barrier of Spears in Zulu
Tugela Falls Worlds 2nd tallest Waterfall
21
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22
Great Rift Valley
  • Stretches from Syria to Mozambique
  • Formed by shifting tectonic plates (what kind??)
    millions of yrs. ago
  • Volcanoes earthquakes continue to shape region
    TODAY

23
Seismic Activity in Africa
24
6,000 Miles Long!
25
Red Sea
26
Great Rift Valley
  • Forms two branches
  • Eastern branch volcanic cones
  • Western branch lakes
  • Lake Tanganyika (2nd lgst. freshwater 2nd
    deepest in world)
  • Lake Malawi (mt. rimmed, gt2,300 feet deep)
  • Lake Victoria (2nd widest in world, but shallow
    source of White Nile)

27
Lake Malawi
Lake Tanganyika
28
Lake Victoria
29
The African Great Lakes
30
Water Systems
  • Lakes rivers come from basins formed millions
    of yrs. ago as land uplifted
  • Travel from plateaus in center of cont. to the
    sea
  • Hit escarpments ? waterfalls ? near impossible
    to navigate inland/ up river

31
Water Systems
  • Lake Chad
  • West-central Africa
  • 20 mil. ppl in 4 countries depend on it
  • Faces desertification (droughts natural
    climate)
  • So shallow, affected greatly by climate ?s
  • 1960s 26,000 km² 2000 1,500 km²

32
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33
Water Systems
  • Lake Volta
  • Man-made (1 of lgst. in world)
  • Flooded 700 villages displaced 70,000 to create
  • Used for irrigation, fishing, hydroelectric power
    (Akosombo Dam) for major aluminum plant and ppl
    of Ghana

34
Akosombo Dam (creates Lake Volta)
35
Water Systems
  • Niger River
  • great river? main artery in W. Africa
  • 2,600 miles long (3rd in Africa)
  • Forms arc across 5 countries
  • Vital for irrigation transportation
  • Splits into Niger Delta in Nigeria (150 X 200
    miles)

36
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37
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38
Water Systems
  • Zambezi River
  • Many waterfalls (Victoria Falls- 355 foot drop
    2X size of Niagra)
  • Congo River
  • Meets sea at deep, navigable estuary (only one in
    Africa)
  • Largest network of navigable water in Africa
  • But still has major waterfalls rapids

39
Zambezi River Victoria Falls
40
Congo River- 2nd longest
41
Physical Barriers
  • Sahara prevents travel from North Africa to
    South/Central Africa
  • Western deltas were treacherous to sail inland
  • Eastern highlands made travel inland difficult
    (cliffs)
  • Europeans controlled coastal trade and Africans
    controlled inland trade

42
Natural resources
  • Mineral resources are abundant
  • Plentiful oil reserves
  • Various metals across region
  • S. Africa has ½ worlds gold, also found
    elsewhere
  • Major diamond deposits

43
Natural Resources
  • Water is ABUNDANT
  • The problem lies with harnessing power (physical
    financial problems)
  • Congo River- More potential hydroelectric power
    than U.S.
  • Africa holds 25 of the worlds potential for
    hydroelectricity, but uses less than 10 of it.
  • More development is occurring
  • Kenya installed 20,000 rural solar power systems
    from 86-96
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