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Chp 18: Physical Geography of Africa

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Chp 18: Physical Geography of Africa The Gold Coast The slave trade Competing tribes selling prisoners of war to Europeans Portuguese and Dutch The middle ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chp 18: Physical Geography of Africa


1
Chp 18 Physical Geography of Africa
2
Take Five
  • Complete the Skill Builder questions on pg 415

3
Landforms of The African Continent
  • Plateau over most of the continent
  • 1,000 feet above sea level
  • plateau continent
  • Water Basins (depressions)
  • 625 miles wide
  • 5,000 feet deep
  • Ex Chad, Sudan, Congo, Djouf Basins
  • Rivers
  • NileLongest river in the world
  • 4,000 miles
  • Provides Irrigation waters
  • 95 of water resource for Egypt

4
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5
Nile River
6
Valleys, Mountains, Lakes (Oh My)
  • Rift Valleyscaused by continental separation
  • Lake Tanganyikalongest freshwater lake in the
    world
  • Lake Victoriaworlds 2nd largest freshwater lake
  • Volcanic mountains
  • Mount Kenya
  • Mount Kilimanjaro--Africas Highest Mtn.
  • Escarpmentsteep slope with plateau on top
  • The Great Escarpment in Southern Africa

7
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8
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9
Africas Natural Resources
  • Rich mineral resources
  • Gold (30 of worlds resources) Platinum (80)
    Cobalt Copper Diamonds Chromium (used in
    production of stainless steel)
  • OilLibya, Nigeria, Algeria (worlds leading
    petroleum countries) Angola Gabon also rich in
    oil resources
  • Is not rich in economic development
  • Exploited by European imperialist countries
  • Africa slow to develop infrastructure and
    industries

10
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11
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12
Gold Production
13
African Climate and Vegetation
  • Deserts
  • Kalahari
  • Namib
  • Saharalargest desert in the world
  • 3,000 miles
  • Temperatures over 100 during the day and freezing
    at night
  • Only 2 million Africans live here
  • Aquifersunderground water resources
  • Oasis
  • Tropics of Africa?
  • 90 of continent lies between the Tropics of
    Cancer and Capricorn

14
Kalahari
15
Sahara
16
Native Peoples of the Sahara
17
Oasis in Kenya
18
Rainfall in Africa
  • Mediterranean climates in Northern and Southern
    Africa
  • Rainfall N (Dec Jan) S (June July)
  • East Africa
  • Periodic droughts
  • Central Africa
  • Rainforestthroughout the year
  • ½ of Africa is the tropical savannah w/ 2 rainy
    seasons each year
  • Western Africa
  • Adequate rainfall

19
Vegetation
  • Tropical grasslands cover the majority of African
    landscapes
  • Serengeti Plain
  • Rainforest in the Central regions of Africa
  • Congo Basin
  • Variety of plant and animal life
  • Canopy
  • Problems with slash/burn techniques
  • ½ of original rainforest destroyed

20
Serengeti Plain
21
Congo Basin
22
Interesting and Unusual Plant and Animal Life in
Africa
23
Human-Environment Interaction
  • Desertification of the Sahel
  • Causes
  • Overgrazing of livestock
  • Farming and increased soil erosion
  • Wind erosion
  • Drilling for water leads to increased levels of
    salt which prevents growth
  • Increased population
  • Effects
  • Destroying forests and rainforests

24
Human-Environment Interaction
  • Oil Resources in Nigeria
  • Worlds 6th largest oil exporter
  • Nigeria borrowed money against oil profits for
    internal improvements
  • Oil prices dropped leaving Nigeria in debt to
    foreign countries

25
Effects of Nigerian Oil Industry
  • Mismanagement of money, corruption of government
    officials and decline of oil prices has injured
    the Nigerian economy
  • 400 oil spills
  • Bandits sabotaging oil pipelines with consent of
    the government
  • New leadership-President Olusegun Obasanjo (1999)
    pledged to fire corrupt government employees and
    clean up corruption and mismanagement

26
Controlling the Nile River
  • Periods of drought/flooding
  • Flooding provided silt for fertile soils along
    the banks of the Nilebut also destroyed
    homes/farms etc
  • Egyptians tried canals and dams to stop the
    environmental problem
  • Aswan High Dam (1970)
  • Created Lake Nasser300 mile lake
  • Regulates water flow to farming regions

27
Aswan Dam
28
Aswan High Dam
29
Aswan High Dam
30
Lake Nasser
31
Problems associated with the Aswan Dam
  • Relocation of Nubian population
  • Relocation of artifacts from the Temple Abu
    Simbel
  • Destruction of some Egyptian artifacts
  • Decreased fertility without seasonal floods
  • Drains installed to flush out the salt deposits
    which would have naturally been removed with
    seasonal flooding
  • Increased in mosquito born diseases (malaria)
  • Evaporation of Lake Nasser

32
Temple of Abu Simbel
33
Chp 19 From Human Beginnings to New Nations
  • East Africa
  • North Africa
  • West Africa
  • Central Africa
  • Southern Africa

34
East Africa
  • cradle of humanity
  • Evidence of humanoids from 2 mill years ago
  • Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya,
    Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, and Uganda

35
Northern Africa
36
East African Trade
  • 100s AD-Trade along the Red Sea Indian
    Ocean-Aksum (Ethiopia)
  • Center for Christianity
  • Taking advantage of Monsoon winds
  • 600s AD-Kilwa (Tanzania) emerges as a new trading
    center with middle east
  • East Africa cultural crossroads

37
Aksum
38
Colonization and Imperialism
  • Europe interested in rich natural resources
  • Berlin Conference 1884-1885
  • Dividing Africa among European rulers
  • African chiefs were not invited
  • European country must illustrate and maintain
    control in a region
  • Division without regard to cultural, ethnical or
    any other African considerations

39
Colonization
  • By 1914 only Liberia Ethiopia was free from
    European control
  • U.S. in Liberia
  • Ethiopia defeated the Italians in 1896

40
Problems associated with ending colonization
  • Political instability
  • Economic hardship
  • Ethnical disputes
  • Ex Rwandas Civil War in 1990

41
East African Economies
  • Farming
  • 70 rural
  • Cash crops coffee, tea, sugar
  • Dependent on world market
  • Tourism
  • Wildlife parks
  • Game reserves

42
Kenyan Wildlife Reserve
43
Maintaining East African Traditions
  • 160 different ethnic groups
  • 2 largest ethnic groups
  • Masai
  • Mainly traditional farmers
  • Kikuyu
  • Farmers as well as urban workers
  • The Mau Mau

44
How East Africans Cope with the AIDS Pandemic
  • HIV infections
  • Spread of the disease
  • Tradition vs modern
  • medicine
  • Economy
  • Population decline
  • Orphans

45
North Africa
  • Countries of North Africa Algeria, Egypt, Libya,
    Morocco, Sudan Tunisia
  • Life along the Nile river
  • The gift of the Nile
  • Seasonal floods
  • Prosperous agriculture

46
Egyptian Pharaohs
  • 3300 BC earliest Egyptian civilizations
  • 3100 BC unification of Egypt
  • Artifacts and gains from Egyptians
  • Pyramids
  • Papyrus
  • Advances in Medicine

47
Pyramids
48
The Sphinx
49
Papyrus
50
Islam in North Africa
  • Fall of the Egyptians to the Romans/ Byzantine
    Empire
  • Northern African invaded numerous times
  • By 632 AD Muslims spread Islam to Northern Africa
  • 750 AD Muslims controlled most of N. Africa

51
Economies of Northern Africa
  • Agriculture
  • Cash crops
  • Mining
  • Oil
  • Algeria major export
  • Libya 99 of exports
  • Labor shortages

52
African Souks
53
Culture
  • Souks
  • Protest music
  • RaiAlgerian resentment toward French
    colonization
  • Banning and criticizing rai

54
Women in Northern Africa
  • Slow to have reforms for women
  • Polygamy
  • Tunisia
  • 7 parliament
  • 9 business owners

55
West Africa
  • Countries of Western Africa Benin, Burkina Faso,
    Cape Verde, Chad, Cote dIvorie, Gambia, Ghana,
    Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania,
    Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierre Leone, and Togo

56
West Africa
57
The importance of trade
  • Location, location, location
  • 200 AD trade between West Africa and the Sahara
  • Gold for salt trade
  • Good ports, open to European traders by 1300s

58
Stateless societies
  • Many African states lived as extended family clan
    groups without official leadership other than the
    patriarch of the family
  • Blood money
  • Polygamy
  • Polytheistic

59
Economies of West Africa
  • Exports
  • Gold, diamonds, magnesium bauxite
  • Dependent upon world market
  • Sierra Leone
  • One of the worst economic countries in West
    Africa
  • Civil war, instable governments and uneducated
    population

60
Culture of West Africa
  • Asasia-cloth historically created for royalty by
    the Ashanti people of Ghana
  • Benin bronzes
  • Music
  • Elements of jazz, blues,
  • reggae
  • Koracross between the a
  • lute and a harp

61
Asasia
62
Benin Bronze Works
63
Central Africa
  • Countries of Central Africa Cameroon, Central
    African Republic, Dem. Rep. of Congo, Rep. of
    Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and Sao Tome and
    Principe

64
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65
European colonization
  • Begin in Central Africa
  • Importance of the slave trade
  • Willingness of African leaders to trade
  • Portuguese island of Sao Tome

66
The Gold Coast
  • The slave trade
  • Competing tribes selling prisoners of war to
    Europeans
  • Portuguese and Dutch
  • The middle passage
  • Tight and loose packing
  • Fear of depopulation

67
Triangle Trade Routes
68
Middle Passage
69
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70
Tight Packing
71
European Colonization
  • Role of King Leopold II of Belgium
  • Rubber workers and beginning of European
    colonization within the interior
  • Central Africa colonized primarily by Belgium and
    France
  • Independence in the 1960s

72
Central African Culture
  • Reflections against colonization and retaining
    African culture
  • Ex Congoleseculture above the West
  • PicassoFang sculpture

73
Central African Education
  • Focusing on education to improve workforce
  • Less than ½ 16-20 year olds in Sub-Saharan Africa
    attend school
  • Language barriers (700 languages spoken)
  • Shortage of teachers
  • Hopeful for the future

74
Southern Africa
  • Countries of Southern Africa Angola, Botswana,
    Comoros, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius,
    Mozambique, Namibia, S. Africa, Swaziland, Zambia
    and Zimbabwe

75
Southern Africa
76
Mutapa Empire
  • Mwene Mutapa
  • Economy based on Gold trade
  • Portuguese colonization

77
Imperialism and Colonization
  • South Africa
  • The Zulu
  • Dutch colonization (1600s)
  • Boers-Dutch farmers
  • British imperialism
  • Defeat the Zulu
  • Defeat the Boers

78
Zulu
79
Boers
80
KhoiKhoi and San People of South Africa
81
Apartheid
  • White minority controlled government, economy,
    everything
  • 75 black majority controlled nothing
  • Separation of the races
  • Nelson Mandela
  • Jailed from 1964-1982
  • House arrest from 1982-1990
  • Elected President in democratic election of 1994

82
Nelson Mandela
83
Economies of Southern Africa
  • Sanctions during Apartheid
  • Gaps between the rich and poorbased on race and
    ethnicity
  • Ex Botswana
  • Valuable resources (3rd largest diamond producer)
  • Mismanagement of money
  • Lack of agricultural goods
  • Unequal distribution of wealth

84
Affects of AIDS in Southern Africa
  • 25 of all adults infected in Zimbabwe and
    Botswana
  • Reduction of labor
  • Orphans

85
Chp 20 Todays Issues
  • Africa after colonization
  • Political instability
  • Economic uncertainty
  • Lack of education in some areas
  • Tribal warfare (Civil war)
  • Mismanagement of resources
  • Lacking infrastructure technology
  • Indebtedness

86
Reducing debt and raising standard of living
  • Debt forgiveness
  • Regional cooperation to promote trade
  • Ex Economic Community of West African States
  • Cash crops to diversification
  • Education

87
Diseases
  • Cholera
  • Malaria
  • Sleeping Sickness
  • Smallpox
  • AIDS
  • Tuberculosis
  • Ebola virus

88
Why so proliferate?
  • Lack of clean drinking water
  • Mosquitoesno netting
  • Lack of education
  • Lack of medicine
  • Lack of doctors

89
Assistance
  • World financial assistance
  • World government agencies
  • Global Fund for Childrens Vaccines
  • Peace Corps
  • Education
  • Public health
  • Private charity
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