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Late 19c Urbanization


Title: Late 19c Urbanization & Architecture Author: Susan M. Pojer Last modified by: Windows User Created Date: 1/17/2003 2:36:24 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Late 19c Urbanization

Urbanization As Seen Through Late 19c - Early
20c Architecture
By Susan M. Pojer Horace Greeley HS
Chappaqua, NY
Characteristics of Urbanization During the Gilded
  1. Megalopolis.
  2. Mass Transit.
  3. Magnet for economic and social opportunities.
  4. Pronounced class distinctions. - Inner
    outer core
  5. New frontier of opportunity for women.
  6. Squalid living conditions for many.
  7. Political machines.
  8. Ethnic neighborhoods.

New Use of Space
New Class Diversity
New Architectural Style
New Energy
New Symbols of Change Progress
The City as a New Frontier?
New Culture (Melting Pot)
Make a New Start
New Form of Classic Rugged Individualism
New Levels of Crime, Violence, Corruption
Population Shift Urbanization
  • By 1900, the population of the United States was
    80 million people. It was 40 million in 1870.
    So it doubled.
  • However, the population in the cities tripled
    during this same time period. 40 of all
    Americans lived in cities, a stark difference
    from the beginning of the 19th century, when less
    than 10 of the population lived in cities.
  • Chicago, New York, and Philadelphia all boasted
    more than a million people and New York, with 3.5
    million people, was the second largest city in
    the world (behind London)

CHICAGO "The Windy City"
William Le Baron Jenney
  • 1832 1907
  • Father of the Modern Skyscraper
  • First Skyscraper was 10 stories and once
    elevators were perfected, cities such as New york
    and Chicago built to the sky.

W. Le Baron Jenney Central Y.M.C.A., Chicago,
Louis Sullivan
  • 1856 1924
  • The Chicago School of Architecture
  • Form follows function!

Louis Sullivan Bayard Bldg., NYC,
Louis Sullivan Carson, Pirie, Scott Dept.
Store, Chicago, 1899
D. H. Burnham
  • 1846 1912
  • Use of steel as a super structure.

D. H. Burnham Marshall Fields Dept. Store, 1902
A City of Commuters
  • As cities grew, the need for good mass transit
    became apparent
  • Electric Trolley
  • Elevated trains
  • Subway systems
  • As a result, cities also grew outward at the same
    time they grew upward.
  • Cities became a megalopolis, carved into
    different districts for business, industry, an
    residential neighborhoods-which were segregated
    by race, class, and ethnicity

Big City Lights
  • Industrial jobs drew people to the city, but
    cities and the lifestyle also drew people in
  • Late night glitter of social life
  • Modern amenities such as the telephone,
    plumbing, and electricity.
  • Engineering marvels such as the skyscrapers of
    New York and Chicago were awe-inspiring, as well
    as the Brooklyn Bridge.
  • Department stores such as Macys and Marshall
    Fields provided jobs for women and also was
    characteristic of the consumer economy.

Waste Management
  • However, cities also came with new problems. In
    rural America, many things were recycled and most
    homes produced minimal waste.
  • However, big cities were bastions of waste and
    garbage. Mass consumption of food and cloths
    meant increased waste.
  • Also, cities grew up too fast and poor urban
    planning meant that many lived in very unsanitary
  • Sanitary facilities were lacking and could not
    keep up with the pace of population
  • Impure water
  • Uncollected garbage
  • Unwashed bodies
  • Droppings from draft animals
  • Slums increased and were the embodiment of
    unsanitary conditions (dumbbell tenements and

New Immigration
  • Old Immigration
  • Ireland, Germany, Britain, Scandinavia (mostly
    Western Europe and the British Isles)
  • Many shared similar values that were easily
    integrated into American life. Major difference
    was the roman Catholic Irish and Germans
  • High rates of literacy and also some forms of
    representative democracy from their homelands.

New Immigration
  • New Immigration starting in 1880 was much
  • New Immigrants were
  • Poles, Lithuanians, Croats, Slovaks, Greeks,
    Jews, and Italians
  • Came from countries with little history of
    representative government
  • Many were orthodox Christians and Jewish
  • Largely illiterate and poor
  • Sought industrial jobs and packed into the
  • In 1880, they were 19 of all immigrants, by the
    first decade of the 20th century, they were 66
  • Cities such New York and Chicago grew in size as
    these new immigrants came to America

New Immigration
  • Why did they come?
  • Europe had become overcrowded as population
    exploded due to plentiful supply of food from
    their own farms and also America.
  • Industrialization and urbanization in Europe
    created a vast pool of unemployed people
  • Europeans flooded their cities, but some moved on
    and abandoned the Old World to make life
    elsewhere. In total, some 30 million Europeans
    moved to the United States.
  • So, in reality, American urbanization and
    immigration was in many ways a by-product of
    European urbanization.

New Immigration
  • Why America?
  • Land of opportunity and abundance.
  • Plenty of food, comforts, and a perception that
    anyone can make it in America.
  • Also, American businesses need more people to
    maximize profits
  • Industrialists wanted low- wage labor
  • Railroads needed buyers of their land
  • States wanted more population
  • Steamships needed human cargo to make a profit.
  • Some also came due to prosecution and programs
    against them in their own country. Such as
  • Jewish Pogrom was instituted and many were
    chased from their homes and made their way to
    Atlantic seaboard, especially New York
  • However, many returned home. Some 25 returned
    after making a living in America.

Transition to America
  • Generally speaking, the government did little to
    aid or help the new arrivals or to assist them in
    assimilating to American culture.
  • Consequently, the political machines in large
    cities, such as Boss Tweeds Tammany Hall, helped
    these new immigrants, in exchange for votes of
  • Gave jobs or services
  • Found housing
  • Helped poor with gifts of clothing and food
  • Helped when in trouble with the law
  • Helped get schools, parks, and hospitals built in
    immigrant neighbor hoods

Jane Addams
  • Social Gospel
  • Championed by preachers such as Walter
    Rauschenbusch and Washington Gladden
  • They preached that socialism was the logical
    outcome of Christianity and were part of the
    movement known as Christian socialists, which had
    some appeal amongst the middle Class
  • Jane Addams-
  • Born into a wealthy family and part of the first
    generation of college-educated women, she
    purchased in Chicago, the Hull House.

Jane Addams
  • Located in immigrant neighborhood of poor Greeks,
    Italians, Russians, and Germans, Hull House
  • Instruction in English
  • Help in adjusting to American big-city life
  • Child-care services for mothers
  • And cultural activities
  • Jane Addams was a wide range reformer and
    received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1831. In
    particularly, condemned war and poverty.

Other reformers
  • Other settlement houses were established in other
    big cities and became centers for social reform
    and activism.
  • Hull House lobbied for ant-sweatshop law that
    protected women and prohibited child labor (led
    in this case by Florence Kelly, an advocate for
    the welfare of women, children, blacks, and
  • Lillian Wald established Henry Street Settlement
    in New York.
  • Work of Addams, Wald, and Kelly helped create the
    idea of the profession of Social Work.

Women and Jobs
  • More than one million joined work force in 1890s
  • Mostly single, because it was considered taboo
    for wives and mothers to work.
  • Jobs depended on race, class, and ethnicity
  • Black women- domestic jobs
  • Native born white women- social workers,
    secretaries, department store clerks, and
    telephone operators
  • Immigrant women- tended to cluster into certain
    industries, such as garment making for Jewish

  • As the nativism was popular in the 40s and 50s
    with the arrival of Germans and Irish, the same
    thing happened beginning in the 1880s with the
    New Immigrants
  • Eastern and southern Europeans were looked upon
    as an exotic horde who were invading the United
    States and would eventually, with their large
    families, outnumber the Anglo-Saxons.
  • Other fears and worries
  • Blamed new immigrants for the degradation of city
    governments in big cities
  • Trade unions despised them because they were
    often strike breakers and also worked for
    starvation wages
  • Feared them for their political views on
    socialism , communism, and anarchism.

  • APA
  • American Protective Association
  • Similar to the Know-Nothing Party
  • Urged voting against Roman Catholic candidates
  • In 1887, had million members
  • Restrictive laws
  • 1882- banned criminals and convicts
  • 1885- banned importation of immigrants already
    under contract
  • 1917-literacy test
  • Later laws prohibited insane, polygamists,
    prostitutes, alcoholics, anarchists, and diseased

Statue of Liberty, a gift from France, was
erected in 1886. -Give me your tired, your
poor Your huddled masses yearning to Breathe
free The wretched refuse of your teeming shore
Church Reform
  • In some large cities, the Church and its members
    became more concerned with materialism than
    religion. Churches became a symbol of ones
    wealth and with the gospel of wealth preaching
    that God caused the righteous to prosper, many
    looked to make reforms in the Protestant church
  • Hence, liberal Protestants, called for modest
    moral reforms
  • Rejected biblical literalism and rejected idea of
    original sin
  • Active in the social gospel movement
  • Sought to mediate between labor and capital,
    science and faith, religious and secular values.
  • Helped protestants reconcile their religious
    faith with the modern, cosmopolitan way of

New religions
  • First, Roman Catholics by 1900 had 9 million
    adherents and was the largest denomination
  • By 1890, Americans could choose between 150
    different denominations, and two new ones
  • Salvation Army
  • Church of Christian Science
  • Led by Mary Eddy Baker
  • Taught relief from discords and diseases through
  • Wrote Science and Health with Key to the
    Scriptures (1875)
  • YMCA and YWCA also became popluar at this time

Darwin and the Church
  • Darwins theory of evolution, and in particular,
    the idea of natural selection challenged the
  • Especially the idea of dogma of special
    creations was challenged. Darwins theory
    greatly questioned Gods role in making humans
  • Churchs response
  • At first, simply rejected idea
  • But later, split into two camps (conservative and
  • Conservatives frankly dismissed Darwin
  • Accomadationists reconciled science and religion
    by stating evolution was simply a higher
    revelation of the ways of God

School Reform
  • Many started to understand that without free
    education, the government would suffer under
    peoples ignorance. Thus, it was a public good
    and beneficial for society to have compulsory
  • During 1880s and 1890s, not only elementary
    schools grew, but the High School became more
  • Also, teacher training schools grew in size and
    importance and the idea of kindergarten took root
    in America
  • Success of schools can be seen in falling
    illiterate rates
  • 1870 20 percent
  • 1900 10.7 percent

Black Activists
  • Booker T. Washington
  • Champion of black education in 1900, 44 percent
    of non-whites were illiterate
  • Headed the Tuskegee institute in Alabama
  • Known as an accomadationist, he did not directly
    challenge white supremacy, he avoided the issue
    of social equality
  • He accepted segregation as long as the right to
    develop and improve existed the economic and
    educational resources of the black community
  • Believed that economic independence would be the
    ticket to black political and civil rights
  • George Washington Carver taught at Tuskegee,
    known for his achievements in creating new uses
    for the peanut, soy bean, and sweet potato.

Black Activists
  • W.E.B. Dubois
  • Challenged Booker T. Washington and his view on
    segregation. Believed that Bookers approach
    would result in blacks never finding jobs more
    than manual labor and in a state of perpetual
  • Earned P.H.D at Harvard
  • Demanded complete equality for blacks, both
    economic and political and founded the NAACP
    (National Association for the Advancement of
    Colored People)
  • Rejecting Washingtons approach of gradual
    integration, he demanded the most talented 10th
    percent of the black community be given immediate
  • Self-exiled to Africa, he died there in 1963.

Land-Grant Universities and Research Colleges
  • As public schools increased, so did colleges
  • More opportunities for women and blacks
  • By 1880, a third of all college graduates were
  • Black universities set up during Reconstruction
    were flourishing, such as Howard University
    (D.C.), Hampton Institute (Virginia), and Atlanta
  • Growth of colleges attributed to the Morrill Act
    of 1862
  • Provided a grant of public lands to states to
    support higher education
  • Many state universities formed out of these
  • Hatch Act of 1887 extended Morrill Act, but also
    provided federal funds for the establishment of
    agricultural schools in connection with
  • Both acts helped create hundreds of universites

Private Universities
  • In addition to the state public universities,
    many of the new millionaires supported the
    creation of private universities
  • From 1878-1898, philanthropists gave away 150
    million towards private schools
  • Cornell University, Stanford and University of
    Chicago (Rockefeller) all started at this time
  • Also, research/graduate schools opened up, which
    Johns Hopkins was the most noteworthy. This
    meant that Americans no longer had to go abroad
    to receive graduate or doctorate degrees.

  • By 1900, there were 9,000 libraries in the U.S.
  • In 1897, the Library of Congress opened its
    doors. It provided 13 acres of floor space and
    was the costliest building
  • Andrew Carnegie contributed 60 million dollars to
    open libraries across America

The Press
  • Newspapers, being more commercialized, often
    toned down their scathing editorials to prevent
    antagonizing the advertisers
  • Also, their was a rise in sensationalism.
  • Stories of sex, scandal, and human-interest
    stories became more common and many complained
    that the press became presstitutes.
  • Two tycoons emerged
  • Joseph Pulitzer- New York World
  • William Randolph Hearst- San Francisco Examiner
  • Both considered not 100 wholesome, what sold is
    what was printed. Had a flair for scandal and
    sensational rumor.
  • Yellow Journalism

Reform Writers
  • Henry George
  • Wrote Progress and Poverty
  • He argued that property values grew due to the
    increase in demand from growing populations.
  • He rationalized that a 100 tax on profits from
    these lands could solve the issue of income
    distribution and poverty
  • Propertied class rejected idea, but George sold 3
    million copies and lectured in U.S. and Britain
    on his idea

Reform Writers
  • Edward Bellamy
  • Published socialistic novel Looking Backward in
  • Hero falls asleep and awakens in the year 2000.
  • America is a socialistic paradise in which big
    business is nationalized to serve the public
  • Bellamy sold over a million copies and some
    Bellamy Clubs sprang up across America

  • As literacy increased, so did book reading.
  • Dime novels- usually about the West
  • King of dime novels was Harlan Halsey, who wrote
    650 novels, sometimes one in a day
  • General Lewis Wallace
  • Wrote Ben Hur- sold more 2 million copies. It
    was written to combat wave of skepticism due to
    Darwins theory

  • Horatio Alger- sold 100 million copies of
    juvenile fiction in which he gave moral lessons
  • Walt Whitman- poet who wrote Leaves of Grass.
    Famous American poet
  • Emily Dickinson- became known after her death in
    1886. Lived as a recluse and wrote thousand of
    short lyrics on paper.

  • Wiring style that reflected the materialism of
    the industrial age. People turned to the world
    around them to find their muse and wrote of the
    human struggle and comedy.
  • Famous realism writers
  • Kate Chopin-The Awakening- Spoke of feminist
    yearnings during the Gilded Age
  • Mark Twain (Samuel Clemens)- gave us the term
    Gilded Age. Noted for his novels Tom Sawyer and
    Huck Finn. Noted for his gift of writing
    exclusively American novels in American dialect
    and describing frontier realism

  • William Dean Howells- editor in chief of Atlantic
    Monthly. Wrote about everyday people and
    controversial social themes. Rise of Silas
    Lapham and A Hazard of New Fortunes
  • Stephen Crane- wrote about the dark underside of
    life in American urban and industrial cities.
    Maggie a girl of the Streets. Famous for Red
    Badge of Courage, story of a Civil war recruit.
  • Henry James- novel Bostonians was one of the
    first to cover the burgeoning feminist movement.
    Wrote about women often and became known for his
    style called psychological realism

  • Jack London-
  • Call of the Wild. Nature writer, but later moved
    to other genres.
  • Frank Norris-
  • Wrote about the railroads and their stranglehold
    on California ranchers in The Octopus. Later
    wrote The Pit, describing the making and breaking
    of speculators in the Chicago wheat exchange.
  • Two black authors, Paul Laurence Dunbar and
    Charles Chestnutt-
  • brought a black realism to the literary scene.
    Using black dialect and folklore in their
    writings, they described the richness of southern
    black culture.
  • Theodore Dreiser
  • Wrote Sister Carrie, story of a poor working girl
    in Chicago and New York

New Morality
  • Victoria Woodhull and her sister advocated for
    free love (not what you think) and feminism.
    They represented a shock to respectable society
    with their periodical Woodhull and Claflins
  • Anthony Comstock represented the pure-minded
    Americans and he spoke out against the immoral
    activities in society. He was a self-appointed
    defender of sexual purity- opposite of Woodhull
  • New role of women threatened traditionalists, and
    Woodhulls ideas of divorce and more freedom for
    women was scary to many and seen as immoral.

  • Charlotte Perkins Gilman
  • Wrote Women and Economics in 1898
  • Considered an important feminist book
  • Called on women to abandon their dependent status
    and contribute to the community and society by
    more active role in the economy
  • Rejected also the idea that women were physically
  • Feminists also continued to demand the right to
    vote. In 1890, the National American Woman
    Suffrage Association was formed. Two of the
    founders were legendary feminists Elisabeth Cady
    Stanton and Susan B. Anthony
  • New feminists reformers also come to the
    forefront near the turn of the century. Amongst
    them, Carrie Chapman Catt played a significant
    role. In suffrage movement, she de-emphasized
    the moral right and stressed the benefit of
    giving mothers and wives the right to vote in the
    ever changing urban environment. Women needed to
    be advocates for their families and could do so
    by voting.

  • New feminists reformers also come to the
    forefront near the turn of the century. Amongst
    them, Carrie Chapman Catt played a significant
    role. In suffrage movement, she de-emphasized
    the moral right and stressed the benefit of
    giving mothers and wives the right to vote in the
    ever changing urban environment. Women needed to
    be advocates for their families and could do so
    by voting.
  • By attaching suffrage to traditional womens
    roles, their was much gain in the suiffrage
  • Wyoming was first state to give right to vote in
    1869 and other states granted some rights to
    property ownership and to vote by 1890

American Artists
  • James Whistler
  • Portrait painter
  • John Singer Sergeant
  • Portrait painter self-exiled in England.

American Artists
  • Mary Cassatt
  • Exiled in Paris, was part of French impressionism
  • George Inness
  • Landscape artist

American Artists
  • Winslow Homer
  • Known as one of Americas greatest painters.
  • Known for his paintings of the ocean

Frank Lloyd Wright
  • 1869 1959
  • Prairie House School of Architecture
  • Organic Architecture
  • Function follows form!

Frank Lloyd Wright Allen-Lamb House, 1915
Frank Lloyd Wright Hollyhock House Los
Angeles, 1917
Frank Lloyd Wright Falling Waters, 1936
Interior of Falling Waters
F. L. Wright Furniture
F. L. Wright Glass Screens
Prairie wheat patterns.
Frank Lloyd Wright Susan Lawrence Dana House,
Springfield, IL - 1902
Frank Lloyd Wright Johnson Wax Bldg. Racine,
WI, 1936
Frank Lloyd Wright Guggenheim Museum, NYC - 1959
New York City Architectural Style 1870s-1910s
  1. The style was less innovative than in Chicago.
  2. NYC was the source of the capital for Chicago.
  3. Most major business firms had their headquarters
    in NYC ? their bldgs. became logos for their
  4. NYC buildings and skyscrapers were taller than in

Western Union Bldg,. NYC - 1875
Manhattan Life Insurance Bldg. NYC - 1893
Singer Building NYC - 1902
Woolworth Bldg. NYC - 1911
Flatiron Building NYC 1902 D. H. Burnham
Grand Central Station, 1913
John A. Roebling The Brooklyn Bridge, 1883
John A. Roebling The Brooklyn Bridge, 1913
Statue of Liberty, 1876 (Frederic Auguste
Dumbell Tenement
Dumbell Tenement, NYC
Jacob Riis How the Other Half Lived (1890)
Tenement Slum Living
Lodgers Huddled Together
Tenement Slum Living
Struggling Immigrant Families
Mulberry Street Little Italy
St. Patricks Cathedral
Hester Street Jewish Section
1900 Rosh Hashanah Greeting Card
Pell St. - Chinatown, NYC
Urban Growth 1870 - 1900