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The Spirit of Reform

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Title: The Spirit of Reform


1
The Spirit of Reform
  • Section 1

2
Who was Dorthea Dix?
  • She worked for improving the treatment of the
    mentally ill

3
Who was Lyman Beecher?
  • He created benevolent societies
  • Benevolent societies- spread the word of God
    while combating social problems

4
What was the American Temperance Union?
  • Temperance- moderation in the conception of
    alcohol
  • Leads to prohibition in the 1800s

5
What are penitentiaries?
  • Created with the goal of rehabilitating criminals

6
Who was Horace Mann?
  • He pushed for public education for all children

7
Who was Emma Willard?
  • She founded a womens school that taught academic
    subjects

8
Who was Mary Lyon?
  • She founded the first womens only college, Mount
    Holyoke

9
What was the Seneca Falls Convention?
  • Led by Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Stanton
  • Meeting to focus on equal rights for women
  • Women begin to see themselves as equal to men

10
Andrew Jacksons Presidency
  • Supports the common man through increasing their
    involvement in politics
  • This, in turn, gives Jackson more support

11
What is the Spoils System?
  • A process in which government jobs are given
    based on party loyalty and support

12
What is the difference between a caucus and a
national nominating convention?
  • In a caucus, party members select candidates to
    run for political office
  • In a nominating convention, the people select
    candidates to run for political office

13
What was the Nullification Crises?
  • It occurs in response to the Tariff of
    Abominations, as South Carolina threatens with
    seceding from the Union
  • John C. Calhoun proposes nullification
  • Jackson responds that nullification is an act of
    treason

14
What were the Nullification Debates?
  • Robert Hayne- states rights vs. Daniel Webster-
    national power

15
What was the Force Bill?
  • The bill states the president can use the
    military to enforce laws
  • In response, South Carolina repeals nullification

16
What was the Indian Removal Act?
  • Jackson wants to relocate Native Americans from
    Georgia to Oklahoma

17
What was the result of the Supreme Court case
Worcester vs. Georgia?
  • States that the Supreme Court supports the
    property rights of Native Americans
  • Jackson refuses to support the decision

18
What was the Trail of Tears?
  • Martin Van Buren forces the Native Americans to
    move from Georgia to Oklahoma
  • Thousands of Native Americans die

19
The Spirit of Reform
  • Section 2

20
Why does Jackson oppose the National Bank?
  • Jackson opposes the National Bank because he
    believes it benefits the wealthy
  • Jackson wins the Election of 1832 and closes the
    National Bank

21
Who were the Whigs?
  • The National Republicans, founded by John Q.
    Adams, become the Whig Party

22
Who won the Election of 1836?
  • The Whigs could not support one candidate, which
    allowed Martin Van Buren to become president

23
What was the Panic of 1837?
  • Farmers lose their farms
  • Unemployment rises

24
Who won the Election of 1840?
  • William Henry Harrison defeats Martin Van Buren
    for the presidency
  • Harrison dies 32 days after taking office
  • John Tyler- a democrat becomes the president
  • Tyler sides with the democrats on most issues

25
What was the Webster Ashburton Treaty?
  • It established the boarder between the U.S. and
    Canada

26
Why were immigrants coming to the U.S.?
  • Political and Religious Reasons

27
Where and why did the Irish move to the U.S.?
  • Northeast United States
  • Irish potato famine

28
Where and why did the Germans move to the U.S.?
  • Midwest United States
  • Political and religious freedom

29
What was nativism?
  • It was hostility toward foreigners

30
What was the American Party (aka The Know
Nothings)?
  • Anti-Catholic group
  • Wanted to limit the political power of the
    Catholics
  • When asked if they we part of the American Party,
    they said, I know nothing.

31
What was the Second Great Awakening?
  • Wanted to reintroduce religion into the lives of
    Americans
  • If you allow God into your life you will be saved

32
Who was Charles Grandison Finney?
  • He introduced revivalism, which used religious
    entertainment to persuade people to join their
    religion

33
What was Unitarianism?
  • Broke apart from the church of New England
  • They believed Jesus was not the Savoir, but a
    teacher

34
Who were the Universalists?
  • Broke apart from the church of New England
  • There is no hell everyone goes to Heaven

35
Who was Joseph Smith?
  • Founded the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day
    Saints
  • Believed that prophets still communicate with
    them today
  • Started in New York

36
Who was Brigham Young?
  • Moved the Mormons to Utah

37
The Spirit of Reform
  • Section 3

38
What was Romanticism?
  • A literary style that stresses feeling over reason

39
What was Transcendentalism?
  • Transcend the limits of the mind and embrace the
    universe

40
Who were Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David
Thoreau ?
  • Leaders of Transcendentalism Movement

41
Who was James Fennimore Cooper?
  • Wrote The Last of the Mohicans

42
Who was Nathaniel Hawthorn?
  • Wrote The Scarlet Letter

43
Who was Herman Mehlville?
  • Wrote Moby Dick

44
Who was Edgar Allen Poe?
  • Wrote The Raven

45
Who was Emily Dickinson?
  • Female poet

46
How did newspapers change the U.S.?
  • More people could read which made more people
    want news

47
What were Utopian Communities?
  • An ideal society
  • People joined because they shared common beliefs
  • People shared everything and had no private
    ownership
  • Brooke Farm, Massachusetts

48
What was gradualism?
  • The belief that slavery had to be ended gradually

49
What was the American Colonization Society?
  • Attempted to move African Americans back to Africa

50
What is abolition?
  • Immediate end of slavery

51
Who was William Llyod Garrison?
  • Abolitionist who believed slavery was morally
    wrong
  • Publisher of The Liberator
  • Founded American Antislavery Society

52
What is emancipation?
  • The freeing of all enslaved people

53
Who were Frederick Douglas and Sojourner Truth?
  • Freed slave and leader of Abolitionist Movement
  • Leader of Abolitionist Movement

54
What was the response to abolitionism?
  • Many saw ending slavery as a threat to society
  • Fear of conflict between the north and the south
  • Fear of an increase of African Americans in the
    north
  • Feared the destruction of the souths economy
  • Many believed slaves benefited from slavery
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