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NR 422- Advanced GIS Cartography

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Title: NR 322: Introduction to Geographic Information Systems Author: jimg Last modified by: jimg Created Date: 5/4/2008 5:53:48 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: NR 422- Advanced GIS Cartography


1
NR 422- Advanced GIS Cartography
  • Jim Graham
  • Spring 2009

2
GIS Professionals
  • Produce GIS reports, articles, posters, and web
    sites that are
  • Accurate Precise
  • Astatically pleasing
  • Informative
  • Legal
  • Include the standard cartography elements
  • Spatial data, legends, scale bars, north arrows,
    regional maps, credits, author(s), and projection
    datum
  • Are recognized as authors!

3
What is a map?
4
Questions
  • Purpose
  • What is the map trying to communicate?
  • Audience?
  • What data is available?
  • What is the schedule?
  • Required accuracy?
  • What resources are available?
  • Software
  • Computers
  • Existing photos, graphs, maps

5
Maps by type
  • General reference maps
  • Show a variety of fixed features
  • Water bodies, coastlines, roads, etc.
  • Topographic maps
  • Thematic or special purpose maps
  • Show one attribute or relationships between them
  • Charts
  • Navigation by boat or plane

6
Maps by subject
  • Cadastral ownership
  • Weather
  • Research
  • Recreational maps
  • Planning
  • Informational/Educational

7
Overall Style
  • Antique
  • Political
  • Chart
  • Academic
  • Trail Maps
  • Street Maps
  • USGS Topographic Map Series

8
Levels of Quality
  • Hand drawn
  • MapQuest
  • ArcMap
  • PowerPoint
  • Illustrator Photoshop
  • Quark
  • Media Electronic or paper

9
Types of content
  • Contone
  • DEMS
  • Photos
  • Some statistical layers
  • Spot color (drawings, vector)
  • Points
  • Polylines
  • polygons
  • Categorical rasters
  • Land cover

GoogleMaps
ESRI ArcMap Data Set
10
Map Production
  • Computer Screens (CRTs, Monitor)
  • Emit light in a grid
  • About 100 dpi
  • Red, Green, Blue
  • Good for contone
  • Printers
  • Place ink on paper
  • Cyan, Yellow, Magenta, Black (CYMK)
  • 300 to 2000 dpi
  • Good for spot color

11
Color Theory
Light Additive
Pigment Subtractive
Computer Screens (CRT)
Printers
12
Hue
13
CIE Color Diagram
14
Color Separation
15
Process Color
16
Color Printer Process
  • Get the layout right
  • Test the margins on a black and white printer
  • Test the color print
  • Adjust the colors until they look good
  • Show it to others including target audience
  • Cut off a white border if desired

17
Offset Press
  • Professional grade
  • Large numbers of copies
  • 500 for 500 copies
  • Cheaper for additional copies
  • Each color on a separate plate
  • Can mix special colors
  • Almost all magazines and books are printed on
    offset press

18
Pre-Press Process
  1. Talk to the printer!
  2. Follow color printer process
  3. Take the file and the color print to the process
    printer
  4. Process printer creates photo ready art
  5. May do a test run
  6. Approve final output

19
Paper
  • Paper is graded by hardness
  • Newspaper
  • Office paper
  • Hard paper (Hammermill)
  • Glossy paper
  • Colored paper
  • Dark colors rarely work with computer printers
  • Use white paper and print the background solid

20
Using ArcMap with GA Applications
  • Prepare your map elements
  • File -gt Export
  • Select the appropriate file type
  • Resolution as specified by the printer
  • With spot color 300 to 1000 dpi
  • Without spot color 150 to 200 dpi
  • Files will be big!
  • Import into the other application
  • Add backgrounds, callouts, redo the legend

21
Export File Formats
  • Contone
  • JPEG
  • TIFF with JPEG compression
  • Spot Color, Line Drawings
  • GIF
  • PNG
  • TIFF with LZW or run-length compression
  • Combined
  • JPEG with high quality (low compression)
  • TIFF without compression

22
Using Color
  • Pastels - calming
  • Saturated colors fun, exciting
  • Young
  • Red, blue, green, saturated
  • Older
  • Blue, green, red, unsaturated
  • Color preference varies by culture!
  • 10 of men and 0.5 of women are color-blind
    (poor color discrimination)

23
Background Color
  • Sets the tone
  • Black dramatic
  • White technical
  • Green comforting, natural
  • Red exciting, danger
  • Beige soothing
  • Orange, yellow warm
  • Should not be bright
  • Should compliment the content

24
Borders
  • Neat lines contrast background
  • Light background black
  • Dark background white or yellow
  • Large regions typically black
  • Dashed for smaller subdivisons

25
Solid areas
  • Oceans light blue
  • Regions pastels
  • Patterns going out of style?
  • Patterns of sparse vegetation, rocks, etc. are
    ok.
  • Hashed areas only used for special purpose

26
Networks
  • Standard symbols for highways, roads
  • Blue with black outlines for rivers, black lines
    for streams

GoogleMaps
27
Points, Marks or Symbols
  • Standard when available
  • Easy to identify and remember
  • Size big cities larger

National Geographic
28
Standard Symbols from the USGS
  • http//pubs.usgs.gov/tm/2006/11A02/

29
(No Transcript)
30
Overlays
  • Informational balloons
  • Photos
  • Call outs

National Geographic
31
Labels
  • Typically black or a dark color
  • Drop shadow or halo to highlight on a dark
    background
  • Size matches importance

National Geographic
32
Label Placement
  • Typically horizontal
  • Large roads and steams the label should be above
    the feature and curve with it
  • Labels in regoins can follow its shape
  • Should always be right side up
  • Should not overlap with other labels and symbols

33
Positioning Guidelines
  • Entirely on land or entirely on water
  • Match orientation of the map
  • Small scale match parallels
  • Large scale match bottom edge
  • Not curve unless needed
  • If out of orientation, should have a slight curve
  • Avoid wide spaces unless needed
  • Never upside down

Elements of Cartography
34
Label Placement
Place name 5
Place name 1
2 Place name
Place name 3
4 Place name
Place name 6
Place name 7
Place name 9
Place name 8
Place name 10
Elements of Cartography
35
Visual Variables
  • Primary
  • Shape
  • Size
  • Orientation
  • Color
  • Secondary (Pattern)
  • Arrangement
  • Texture
  • Orientation

36
Map Elements
  • Title
  • Spatial Data w/neat lines
  • Regional maps
  • Scale bars
  • North arrows
  • Text Author, data, projection, datum, sources,
    descriptive
  • Grid lines and margins
  • Magnetic declination navigation maps

37
Regional Maps
  • Enough for the user to identify the area
  • US map does not need regional
  • Some maps need multiple
  • Global
  • Regional
  • Local

38
North Arrow
  • Style should match overall map style
  • North points to true north
  • Must follow lines of longitude (meridians) at the
    location of the arrow (ESRI does not do this
    automatically!)

39
Scale Bars
  • Who is the audience?
  • What measures for distance do they use?
  • Units Degrees, metric, English?
  • Always use metric (SI) or degrees for scientific
    maps
  • Must be readable
  • Which region does it match?

40
Techniques
  • Classification
  • Simplification
  • Exaggeration
  • Generalization

41
Classification
  • Express the salient character of a distribution
  • Similar attributes into categories
  • Create typical attribute for an area
  • Clustering
  • Combining features at small scale (large extent)
  • Combine related features that are close together

42
Simplification
  • Must reduce the detail of the map while
    maintaining its informational content
  • Small-scale maps
  • Find points that represent clusters
  • Polygons can be become points
  • Multiple points can become one

43
Exaggeration
  • Exaggerate a feature of interest
  • Elevation
  • City size
  • Feature size
  • Buildings
  • Bridges
  • Monuments

44
Generalization
  • Reduces the size of the data (in bytes)
  • Reduces detail
  • Reduces interest in the generalized item

45
Composition
  • Spatial data should be the focus, set the stage,
    and take up the most area (typically)
  • Legends, scale bars, credits and other items fill
    in the gaps
  • This makes each map layout unique
  • Try different arrangements until you find the one
    that looks best (show it to others)

46
Map Element Placement
  • Title at the top
  • Sometimes vertically on the left
  • Rarely on across the bottom
  • In or around the map?
  • Either way it must stand out!

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