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Aquatic Ecosystem Management

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Title: Aquatic Biodiversity Author: Katherine Last modified by: Katherine A. Kunz Created Date: 10/23/2011 7:27:44 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Aquatic Ecosystem Management


1
Aquatic Ecosystem Management
2
3 Things We Know
  • Greatest marine biodiversity found in coral
    reefs, estuaries, and the deep-ocean floor.
  • Biodiversity is higher near coasts than in the
    open sea due to more producers and habitats.
  • Biodiversity is greater near the ocean bottom
    (compared to the surface) due to a greater
    variety of habitats and food sources.

3
HIPPCO
  • H Habitat Destruction
  • IInvasive Species
  • P Population and resource use growth
  • P Pollution
  • C Climate Change
  • O Overexploitation

4
H Habitat Destruction
5
Habitat Destruction to Marine Systems
  • Coastal Development
  • Ocean bottom destroyed by dredging and trawler
    fishing

6
Dredging
7
Trawlers
8
Ban on Trawling
  • Scientists urged the United Nations to put a ban
    on trawling.
  • What type of countries would be opposed to this?
  • Finally, in 2007, these countries agreed.
  • But very difficult to monitor and enforce.

9
Habitat Destruction in Freshwater Systems
  • Dams
  • Excessive water withdrawal (Usually for
    agricultural uses)
  • 51 of freshwater
  • species threatened
  • with premature
  • extinction

10
Dam Issues
  • Flooding of terrestrial lands that destroy or
    fragments wildlife habitat
  • Displacement of people along overpopulated
    waterway areas
  • Reduction of silt downstream from the dam
  • Interruption of migratory pattern of some fish
    species
  • Collection of pollutants

11
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12
Riparian Zones
  • Vegetation areas that border stream bank. The aid
    the stream by filtering out toxins and excess
    nutrients before they reach the streams. They
    also keep soil intact and prevent erosion and
    sedimentation into the waterway
  • A problem when livestock are allowed to feed here

13
I Invasive Species
14
Invasive Species
  • 84 of the worlds coastal water are being
    colonized by invasive species
  • Invasive species usually travel from one place to
    another via ships
  • Invasive species can also be introduced by humans

15
Examples of Human Introductions
  • Asian swamp eel invaded the waterways of South
    Florida likely due to someone dumping out their
    home aquarium.

16
Examples of Human Introductions
  • Purple loosestrife is imported from Europe into
    the US as an ornamental to use in gardens.
    Reproduces easily and quickly and has begun to
    decrease wetland biodiversity.

17
Case Study Lake Victoria
  • East Africa
  • Nile perch eating all of the cichlids, which were
    introduced by humans
  • Possible economic consequences?

18
P Population and Resource Use Growth
19
Population Growth
  • More people want to live along the coastlines
    (increases habitat destruction and pollution)

20
P Pollution
21
Pollution
  • 80 comes from land-based activities
  • Fertilizers!
  • Toxic Pollutants
  • Plastic Items

22
Red Tide
  • Excessive inputs of nitrogen from fertilizer
    runoff cause explosive growth of toxic
    microscopic red algae that can poison fish and
    marine mammals
  • Occurs nearly every summer along Gulf Coast

23
Dead Zones
  • The Chesapeake Bay was declared a dead zone by
    the U.S. government due to low levels of
    dissolved oxygen and depletion of biodiversity.
    This was sparked by the cultural eutrophication
    stemming from an input of fertilizers from local
    agricultural areas. Paid 250 million for local
    farmers to leave area surrounding area unplanted.

24
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25
Case Study Lake Victoria
  • Large amount of fertilizer going in
  • Cichlids feed on algae
  • Nile Perch feed on cichlids
  • What do you think happened?

26
Pharmaceuticals
  • Birth control pills contain hormones
  • When they get into the water, fish can undergo
    sex changes
  • Example Alligators in Lake Apopka

27
Oil Spills
  • http//www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/05/26/bp-oil-sp
    ill-live-feed-vi_n_590635.htmls125426

28
C Climate Change
29
Climate Change
  • Causes sea levels to rise. Why?
  • Consequences of sea level rise
  • -destroys coral reefs
  • -drowns highly productive coastal areas
  • -drowns mangrove forests and wetlands

30
O Overexploitation
31
Overfishing
  • Commercial Extinction no longer profitable to
    continue fishing species

32
Overfishing
  • Bycatch non-target fish species
  • Marine and freshwater species are threatened with
    extinction by human activities more than any
    other group of species!
  • Tragedy of the Commons why fish?

33
Industrial Fishing
  • Mostly from developing nations
  • Trawler Fishing
  • Problem Heavy chains destroying ocean bottom

34
Fishing Methods
  • Purse-seine Fishing used to catch fish by the
    surface using a spotter plane
  • Problem Often catch other marine life, such as
    dolphins
  • http//www.3news.co.nz/Purse-seine-fishing-plummet
    ing-NZ-tuna-supply/tabid/1216/articleID/170956/Def
    ault.aspx

35
Fishing Methods
  • Longline Fishing
  • Problem Often catches and kills sea turtles,
    dolphins, sharks

36
Fishing Methods
  • Drift-net Fishing just large netes
  • Problem Often catches sea turtles, dolphins,
    sharks
  • TED DEVICES!
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vy71cgxmyMO4feature
    relatedsafety_modetruepersist_safety_mode1sa
    feactive
  • Nets longer than 1.6 miles banned in 1992 by U.N.

37
Leatherback Sea Turtles
  • Population numbers are okay in the Atlantic, but
    have dropped by 95 in the Pacific Ocean.
  • Very ancient, only warm-blooded sea turtle, dives
    to very deep depths
  • Lights, egg poaching, leather, fish nets, plastic
    bags

38
Whaling
  • Between 1925 to 1975, 8 of the 11 major whale
    species became extinct
  • IWC (International Whaling Commission) regulate
    whaling industry by setting annual quotas
  • 1970 Whaling banned in U.S.
  • 1986 IWC banned commercial whaling
  • Japan, Norway, Iceland, Russia dont listen

39
Fish Farming
  • Advantages -Produces high yields -Contains
    essential nutrients -Easily-maintained -Not
    depleting natural stocks
  • Disadvantages -Aquatic contamination and
    pollution (e.g. Oil spills, human material thrown
    in water often harms fish) -High density to
    volume ratio, fish often clustered together thus
    causing high stress level which increases
    susceptibility to disease and transfers disease
    at an accelerated -Possible escape

40
Fish Farming
  • China is responsible for the majority of the
    globally produced farmed fish
  • Ted Talks I fell in love with a fish

41
Protecting Marine Biodiversity
  • 1975 Convention on International Trade in
    Endangered Species (CITES)
  • 1979 Global Treaty on Migratory Species
  • U.S. Endangered Species Act of 1973
  • U.S. Whale Conservation and Protection Act of
    1976
  • 1995 International Convention on Biological
    Diversity

42
  • Name 3 dangers to coral reefs

43
How to Protect Marine Environments
44
Protected Marine Species
  • http//www.environment.gov.au/coasts/publications/
    identification-guide/pubs/protected-marine-species
    -identification-guide.pdf

45
Fishing Limits
  • Size
  • Number
  • Time of year
  • http//myfwc.com/fishing/saltwater/regulations/lob
    ster/

46
Marine Protected Areas (MPAs)
  • Law of the Sea Treaty A country owns 370
    kilometers of ocean from its shoreline
  • Coastal nations have jurisdiction over 36 of
    ocean surface and 90 of worlds fish stocks
  • MPA parts of the ocean that are partially
    protected from human activities

47
Marine Reserves
  • Ecosystem Approach Protect whole ecosystems, not
    just certain species.
  • Could be temporary, updates via satellite
    technologies
  • No commercial fishing, dredging, or mining.
  • Studies show that marine reserves allow fish
    population sizes to double QUICKLY

48
What you can do
  • Purchase sustainably harvested seafood
  • Limit chemical use on lawns if live near the
    coast
  • Reduce carbon footprint

49
Ways to Sustain Marine Fisheries
  • 1. Estimating Fish Populations
  • Maximum Sustained Yield The maximum number of
    fish that can be harvested annually from a fish
    stock without causing a population drop.
  • Does not work very well because hard to actually
    estimate populations and doesnt take into
    consideration how other species are affected.

50
Other Ways
  • Regulate Fishing
  • Comanagement Systems
  • Rid of government subsidies (can encourage
    overfishing)
  • Individual Transfer Rights government gives each
    fishing vessel its allotment, can trade or sell

51
Problems with ITR
  • 1. Gives ownership of fish to private companies
    that are regulated by public funds
  • 2. Can promote illegal fishing by small companies
    that are squeezed out
  • 3. Often set too high to prevent overfishing

52
Consumer Choice
  • Up to the people
  • Seafood should be labeled
  • Certification of sustainably caught food
  • MSC Fish Forever eco-label
  • In 2006, Wal-Mart pledged
  • to sell only MSC-certified
  • wild caught seafood

53
Study
  • Figure 11-12
  • Fish Farming
  • Laws

54
Protecting Wetlands
55
Problem
  • Wetlands and swamps are usually drained, filled
    in, or covered to create rice fields and make
    land available for growing crops, expanding
    cities, and building roads.
  • Wetlands are also being covered by rising sea
    levels.

56
History of Everglades
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vekwOBo-sI3gsafety_
    modetruepersist_safety_mode1safeactive
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vEhCr1hTcfAAsafety_
    modetruepersist_safety_mode1safeactive

57
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58
Florida Everglades
  • Less than ½ its original size
  • Diverted Kissimmee River for flood protection,
    which drained the northern part
  • The southern part is suffering due to diverted
    water for agriculture, pollution by nutrients
    from agriculture, and invasive species.
  • 1947 Everglades National Park (1/5)
  • Didnt work because cut off from north

59
Invasive Species
  • Melaleuca Trees
  • Burmese Python
  • Iguana
  • Asian Swamp Eel

60
A Solution?
  • Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP)
    1990.
  • Restore Kissimmee River
  • Create artificial wetlands
  • Get rid of levees blocking water flow

61
Preservation of Wetlands
  • Law requires permit to fill in wetlands
  • Current Goal zero net loss of functional
    wetlands
  • Mitigation banking allows destruction of
    wetlands as long as an equal area of the same
    type of wetland is created or restored.

62
Protecting Freshwater
63
Invasive Species and the Great Lakes
  • Invaded by 162 nonnative species
  • Hulls or bilge water

64
Sea Lamprey
65
Biggest Threat Sea Lamprey
  • Sucks blood out of fish, killing them
  • Depletes fishing populations
  • 15 million a year to apply chemical to kill
    lamprey eggs

66
Another Threat Zebra Mussel
  • Reproduces quickly, no known enemies in Great
    Lakes
  • Clogs pipes
  • 140 million a year, 16,000 per hour

67
Protection
  1. Protect the watershed
  2. Prevent Overfishing
  3. Preventing or reducing invasive species
  4. Hatcheries

68
Aral Sea, former USSR
  • Withdrew large amounts of water from the Aral Sea
    for irrigation of cotton and rice fields. Due to
    excessive removal of water the Aral Sea has lost
    almost 90 of volume, and salinity has risen
    sevenfold, which has caused the extinction of
    many of the local aquatic bird and mammal species
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